Selected Tools for Research in the Western Middle Ages (c.1000-
Suzanna Simor
Queens College, City University of New York
January 2005
The dates delimiting the span of this guide are arbitrary dividing lines. Some of the resources
important for this time frame are also useful for the earlier or the later periods. The coverage
reaches on occasion into what is commonly called the “early Middle Ages,” up to approximately
the second millenium. The end of what we call the Middle Ages was more diffuse, as by 1500 the
various regions of Europe were to some extent on their own paths. In the North, medieval art had
a great final flowering in the fifteenth century and lingered on in may areas well into the sixteenth,
while in Italy, the fifteenth century ushered in the Renaissance and the fourteenth century is often
referred to, with  much justification, as “proto-Renaissance.”
The scope of this listing is not at all comprehensive. Rather, my aim was to select resources that
are fundamental for a given subject area, that are outstanding, representative, and/or unusually
interesting examples of a type of publication, or those whose authors use a particularly interesting
approach, methodology, presentation, etc.
For inclusion, I largely considered the general works for the period, and only exceptionally those
whose coverage goes well beyond the Middle Ages, as they tend to be easy to find. I rarely
included resources dealing with individual countries, almost never those that discuss individual
artists, monuments or artworks, and only exceptionally museum & collection catalogs. When a
series of publications deals with a particular topic, I omitted the individual volumes, however
important they may be in themselves. Materials in English were preferred, and the literature is
basically limited to major European languages. Exceptionally, if a subject important for inclusion
is covered best or only in one of the other languages, that publication was included (e.g., Catalan
art in a publication in Catalan).
Entries are placed in the most specific appropriate section for each. Therefore, general sources
appear in the General section, listed by type of publication (e.g., bibliographies, dictionaries,
serials, surveys and monographs); specialized sources are listed by Medium (using BHA
categories). Contextual resources (very selective), image sources, and the most important tools
round out the listing. Print and digital resources are intermingled, except within the Image section,
where, for reasons of practicality, they appear separately.
CONTEXTUAL RESOURCES (very selective, as examples of types)
Free gateways
Subscription gateways
Regional gateways
ART RESOURCES (selected)
IMAGES (comprehensive resources)
Not-for-profit providers
Commercial providers 
Large free databases
Digitized collections of academic institutions
Free-use image resources made available for the educational community by individual
General e-resources
LITERATURE & IMAGES (primary & secondary sources)
Dictionaries, encyclopedias
Periodical databases
Museum collection catalogs
Artworks by medium
Topographical surveys
The Bible
Single sources
Collections of sources in translation
Surveys, monographs (arts in general)
BY MEDIUM (using BHA categories)
Architecture & Excavations
Pictorial Arts
Painting & Drawing
Mural painting
Prints & Illustration
Manuscript illumination
Stained glass
Decorative Arts
Ceramics & Glass
Textiles & Costume
Embroidery & Needlework
Other Media & Forms
Theater & Festivals
LANGUAGE TOOLS (dictionaries, glossaries, abbreviations, translators)
Dictionaries, glossaries
Latin place names
Centers for medieval studies, Research institutes, Societies
CONTEXTUAL RESOURCES (very selective, as examples of types)
Free gateways
Fordham University, New York, Center for Medieval Studies, maintained by Prof. Paul
Halsall. Huge resource; access to public domain & copy-permitted primary source texts,
in translation & transcription; excellent resources for teaching. Organized as selected &
excerpted texts; full-text sources arranged according to type; saints’ lives (Ancient,
Medieval & Byzantine hagiographical sources).
A companion site to the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Covers all periods of Jewish
history, but strongest for the Middle Ages.
Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Clearing house for medieval sites; organized
access to electronic resources, includes links to art & architecture.
Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
Maintained by Prof. Kathryn Talarico, College of Staten Island, City University of New
York. An academic site, authored & maintained by medieval scholars. Articles peer-
reviewed. Developing, welcomes suggestions/requests/contributions. Intended to be
searchable as a whole (function not working at present). Organized as 
Classified, each section edited by a specialist – a work in progress; combines original,
peer-reviewed full-text publications & selective, annotated links to other Internet
resources, including primary sources, bibliographies, resources for teaching, works of
art, maps, museums, libraries, centers for medieval studies, professional
organizations & journals, e-journals, many websites of interest & even relevant search
Sources of primary documents on the Internet; includes new transcriptions and/or
translations of important medieval texts that have not previously been accessible in
print or electronic format. Alphabetical index.
A Guide to Online Textual Resources.
Resources for teaching. Includes bibliographies, maps & illustrations (ORB hopes to
make available to users a growing collection of downloadable graphic images. Some
available for download, others may be restricted to classroom use or are available
only for browsing on the net), calendar programs, online aids, links to other useful
Medievalia in the Media, “designed for those whose interest in the Middle Ages has
been spurred by popular representations of the period.” 
Argos (University of Evansville, IL) 
Now offline due to a lack of resources; plans underway to re-release it in a new,
consolidated form.
Specialist gateways, e.g.
Journal articles, book reviews & essays in books about women, sexuality & gender
during the Middle Ages.
Subscription gateways
“Commited to the creation of online resources for the teaching and study of European
Middle Ages and Renaissance (400-1700).” 1995-, not-for-profit research project
partnership, supported by University of Toronto. Searchable fast growing bibliography of
over 550,000 records, including articles in 400 journals (1859-) & essays in collections.
Also Paul Oskar Kristeller's Iter italicum (unique finding list of uncatalogued or
incompletely catalogued humanistic manuscripts) & International Directory of Scholars
(over 4,000).
Regional gateways
Francophone medievalist site.
The German medieval studies portal. Sponsored by Reclam Verlag.
The Italian medieval studies portal, containing an e-journal, a discussion list &
news; in 5 languages.
Most series continue to be published in print. Some are making the contents of their
publications available online.
Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Arizona Center for Medieval and
Renaissance Studies, Arizona State University (R. Bjork). Brepols.
Binghamton Medieval and Early Modern Studies. Center for Medieval and Renaissance
Studies, Binghamton University. Brepols.
Burgundica. Brepols.
Burgundy 1384 (arrival of Philippe le Hardi in Flanders)-1506 (death of Philippe le Beau).
Culture et société médiévales. Brepols.
Garland Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages. Garland.
Garland Medieval Bibliographies. Garland.
Garland Medieval Casebooks. Garland.
International Medieval Research. Institute for Medieval Studies, University of Leeds, UK (see
below, Scholarly Conferences). Brepols.
Making the Middle Ages. Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney. Brepols.
Focus on “medievalism,” the post-medieval construction of the Middle Ages in
scholarship & the arts, 16 c.- present, a rapidly growing & relatively newly recognised
field. Treats Medievistic (the origins & history of medieval studies).
Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts. Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Hull, UK
(Bridget Morris). Brepols.
Medievism. Brepols. 
The creation & recreation of the Middle Ages in post-medieval art, history, literature &
popular culture.
Papers in Mediaeval Studies. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, University of Toronto.
Collections of articles on key topics.
Rencontres médiévales européennes. Brepols.
Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages. Routledge.
Methodological tool: Classifies all sources (documentary, visual, archaeological,
literary) & aims to define the specific characteristics & the rules for the interpretation of
each type. 
Toronto Medieval Bibliographies. University of Toronto.
Pionierproject Verschriftelijking, University of Utrecht. Distributed by Brepols.
Interdisciplinary examinations of medieval communication – the transition from illiterate to
largely literate societies that gained momentum during the Middle Ages.
Westfield Publications in Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Centre for Medieval and
Renaissance Studies, Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London. Brepols.
Editions, monographs, collections of essays & Festschriften
Many resources are being made available, by publication or distribution, by Brepols (many
on BREPOLiS), some by Chadwyck-Healey & others, in electronic and print formats.
Library of Latin Texts. 
The leading full-text database for patristic & medieval Latin literature, 2-15 cs., Latin & in
translation. Comprises almost all works published in the Corpus Christianorum (Series
Latina & Continuatio Mediaevalis), many works from other collections (Corpus Scriptorum
Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Sources Chrétiennes, Migne’s Patrologia, Acta Sanctorum,
Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi, Pseudepigrapha), the Vulgate, early Church councils, etc.
Brepols, CD-ROMs, updates. From CETEDOC, at Louvain-la-Neuve, BE.
“A new Migne.” Planned by Dom Eligius Dekkers, 1945, with the belief that the editing of
patristic & medieval Christian texts would have to be undertaken afresh & systematically
in order to meet the standards set by research in the 20 c. Series of publications.
Series Latina. 1953- 
Critical editions of all the Latin texts of Christian writings from the first 8 cs.
Clavis Patrum Latinorum. 3. ed. 1995. 
Lists the authors to be published.
Clavis Patristica Pseudepigraphorum Medii Aevi. 1990-
Includes all the Latin pseudepigraphical texts which circulated under the name of
patristic authors during the Middle Ages.
Continuatio Medievalis. 1966- 
Christian texts from the Carolingian era to the end of the Middle Ages. Includes
also works absent from Migne's Patrologia Latina.
Lexica Latina Medii Aevi. Focuses on Latin-vernacular dictionaries. Current work
centers on Latin-French dictionaries or glossaries.
Series Graeca. 
Post-Nicene authors.
Clavis Patrum Graecorum.. 5 v. 1974-88.
Lists the authors to be published.
Series Apocryphorum. Ed. Association pour l'étude de la littérature apocryphe
Clavis Apocryphorum Novi Testamenti.
Autographa Medii Aevi. 
Medieval autograph (or ideograph) Latin texts. 
Hagiographies. 4 v.
International history of Latin & vernacular hagiographical literature in the West from
its origins to 1550, “intended to serve as material for a general typology and for a
comparative literary history of the hagiographical writings.”
Thesaurus Patrum Latinorum. 
Computer compilation of the writings of the Latin Fathers of the Church & the
works of the Middle Ages; print & microfiche. 
Patrologia Graeco-Latina (PG). Ed. J. P. Migne, Paris, 1857-66. Now Brepols, repr. out-of-
print vols. as needed. 168 v.  
To Council of Florence (1439). Fairly complete, drawing upon the best editions of his
Patrologia Latina (PL). Ed. J. P. Migne, Paris, 1844-90. 221 v.  Chadwyck-Healey online &
on CD-ROMs.
Tertullian (d. c. 230) - Innocent III (d. 1216).
Patrologiae Latinae Supplementum. An update by A. Hamman, 1958-74.
Bibliothèque Migne. Editions J.P. Migne; Brepols.
Major texts & fundamental studies on important subjects relating to the periods &
interests of abbé Migne.
A free searchable database for numerous editions of the scripture.
University of Chicago. Parallel versions of the Bible.
Vetus Latina Institut, Beuron, DE; Brepols: available on CD-ROM & online 2003-
Bible versions of the Latin Fathers, Latin translations of Greek patristic authors, & H.J.
Frede’s repertorium Kirchenschriftsteller: Verzeichnis und Sigel, Freiburg, 1995 & its
updates by R. Gryson. 
Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio. Ed. G. D. Mansi. 31 v. Florence-Venice,
1759-98.  Rev. & enl. ed. J.-B. Martin & C. L. Petit. 60 v. Paris, 1899-1927; repr. Graz,
Ecole française de Rome & Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes, Paris;
Brepols, CD-ROM & online 2002- 
Papal correspondence, 13 & 14 cs. E-version of Registres et lettres des Papes du XIIIe
siècle (32 v., Rome 1883-) & Registres et lettres des Papes du XIVe siècle (48 v., Rome
1899-); updates intend to complete the information gradually by adding the entire text of
litterae communes & by including the litterae secretae.
In Principio: Incipit Index of Latin texts. Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, Paris
& the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library, Collegeville, MN; Brepols: available on CD-ROMs,
with updates, & online 2003-
Approximately 1 million incipits of Latin literature from the pre-classical age to the
Medieval Classics. Brepols.
Editions or classified bibliographies of hymns & liturgical sequences, religious & secular
Latin lyrics, other poetic forms of the Middle Ages, Passion plays; includes general
studies of medieval Latin literature.
Miroir du Moyen Age. Brepols
Aims at presenting complete work of significant authors in annotated translations;
biographies & texts, in a series of monographs.
Records of Early English drama. Victoria University, Toronto & Toronto University Press;
Studies and Texts. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, University of Toronto; Brepols.
Scholarly studies & critical editions of texts relating to the European Middle Ages.
Subsidia medievalia. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, University of Toronto; Brepols.
Handbooks: annotated or critical bibliographies, catalogs of manuscripts, documents or
archaeological artifacts, editions of records, collections of short literary pieces. Often
Texts et études du moyen âge. Brepols, 2004-
Inexpensive editions or translations of medieval Latin texts, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval
Studies, University of Toronto; Brepols:
Toronto Medieval Latin texts. 
Medieval Sources in Translation. 
Compiled bibliographies, frequently found on academic library websites, e.g., 
Classic Christian books in e-format, from Calvin College, MI.
Handy, up-to-date annotated bibliography of materials in University of Calgary Library.
A searchable database of literature on all aspects of scholastic writing & culture, from
Emory University. 
St. John’s University & St. John’s Abbey, Collegeville, MN. 
Almost 100,000 manuscripts – on film, also facsimiles & original, 2003- digitizing
(approximately 1/3 documents available, includes most of the Austrian collection).
Regional catalogs, e.g. 
By Austrian Academy of Sciences.
Atelier de recherche sur les texts médiévaux. ARTEM, Université de Nancy; Brepols.
Editions or studies about texts.
Documents, études et répertoires. Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes (CNRS,
Paris); Brepols.
Transmission & diffusion of texts.
1959-, Centre International de Codicologie Brussels.
“On-going bibliography of studies related to mediaeval manuscripts, in which
approximately 700 brief critic reviews of recent papers or works are published each year.” 
See also below, Manuscript Illumination / Scriptorium: International Review of
Segno e testo: International Journal of Manuscript and Text Transmission. 2003-, University
of Cassino, IT. Distributed by Brepols.
Palaeography, Manuscripts Studies & Book History. Turnhout, BE, Brepols.
Bischoff, B. Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Trans. Cambridge, UK,
Boyle, L. E. Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction. Toronto, 1984.
Brown, M. P. The British Library Guide to Writing and Scripts: History and Techniques.
Toronto & Buffalo, 1998. First pub. London.
From Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
Excellent resources, created by German scholars, as parts of the 
Austria, Academy of Sciences, Kommission für Schrift- und Buchwesen des Mittelalters.
National Library of the Netherlands.
Script samples from manuscripts
Prof. Takami Matsuda, Keio University, Japan.
See below, Manuscript Illumination.
Guyotjeannin, O. Diplomatique médiévale. Turnhout, BE, 1993. (L’ Atelier du médiéviste, 2)
The Belgian Commission Royale d’Histoire, the Belgian Comité national du Dictionnaire
du Latin médiéval, & CETEDOC, Université Catholique de Louvain à Louvain-la-Neuve;
Brepols, CD-ROM, 1998-  
E-version of A. Wauters, Table Chronologique des Chartes et Diplômes imprimés
concernant l’histoire de la Belgique. Comprehensive coverage of over 6,000 pre-1350
charters & 13,000 analyzed documents dealing with Belgium. Indexes, text & image files.
Updates intend to expand chronological & geographical range.
Included in Texts (above).
Gatfield, G. Guide to Printed Books and Manuscripts Relating to English and Foreign
Heraldry and Genealogy. London, 1892.
Berchem, E. Freiherr von, D. L. Galbreath & O. Hupp. Die Wappenbücher des deutschen
Mittelalters. Basel, 1928.
Saffroy, G. Bibliographie généalogique, héraldique et nobiliaire de la France. 4 v. Paris,
Websites, e.g.
The official repository of the coats of arms & pedigrees of English, Welsh, Northern Irish
& Commonwealth families & their descendants.
British & European genealogy & other websites by Brian Tompsett, University of Hull, UK.
Brigitte Gastel Lloyd.
On Globegate, comp. Bob Peckam.
Lives of the saints, collections of miracle stories, accounts of the discovery or movement of
relics, bulls of canonization, inquests held into the life of a candidate for canonization,
liturgical books, sermons, visions, etc. (lives of saints: the primary aim of the authors was not
to produce biography in the modern sense, but rather to portray the subject as an exemplar
of Christian virtue)
Société des Bollandistes (Brussels; Jesuit, active scholarly center since 17 c.). Christian
Publishes Acta sanctorum (organized by liturgical calendar, 68 v., 1643- now Brepols),
Annalecta Bollandiana (journal), Bibliotheca Hagiographica (multi-volume reference
works), analytic indexes, etc. Titles being made available online – e.g.,
Baring-Gould, S. The Lives of the Saints. 16 v. Edinburgh, 1914. 
English, Cornish, Scottish & Welsh saints. 
Bibliotheca Sanctorum [Library of the saints]. Ed. Iosepho Vizzini et al. 13 v. Rome, 1961-69.
Organized alphabetically.
Delaney, J. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NJ, 1980.
Englebert, O. The Lives of the Saints. Trans. from the French. New York, 1995.
Farmer, David. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Rev. ed. Oxford, 1992.
An ecumenical site containing several searchable lexica of Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox
saints. In German, but try the automatic Google translation into English – terrible!
Hagiographica: rivista di agiografia e biografia della Società internazionale per lo studio del
Medio Evo. Historiae. 1994-, Paris & Turnhout, BE, annual.
Hagiologica. Atelier belge d'études sur la sainteté (Paul Bertrand). Brepols.
Head, T., ed. Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology. New York, 2000. (Garland Reference
Library of the Humanities, 1942), 2001.
Section by Prof. Thomas Head, Hunter College & Graduate Center, City University of
New York.
L’Art et la vie au moyen âge à travers les blasons et les sceaux. Exh. cat. Palais Soubise,
Paris, 1950.
Burke, J. & J. B. Burke. A General Armory of England, Scotland, and Ireland … London,
1842, 3. rev. ed. 1844, 1878, repr. 1884; Baltimore, MD, 1969 as Encyclopedia of
Eve, G. W. Heraldry as Art. London & New York, 1907.
Galbreath, D. L. Manuel du blazon. Lausanne, 1942; rev. ed. L. Jéquier, Paris, 1977. 
Jones, E. J., ed. Medieval Heraldry. Cardiff, UK, 1943; New York, 1983. 
Neubecker, O. & J. P. Brooke-Little. Heraldry: Sources, Symbols and Meaning. New York &
London, 1976.  
Good illustrations.
Papworth, J. W. & A. W. W. Morant. An Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms … Forming
an Extensive Ordinary of British Armorials. London, 1858, 1874.
“An alphabetical dictionary of coats of arms belonging to families in Great Britain and
Ireland; forming an extensive ordinary of British armorials; upon an entirely new plan ...”
Rietstap, J. B. Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles
et patriciennes de l’Europe. Gouda, NL, 1861; rev. ed., 2 v., 188487, 1950; repr.
Baltimore, MD, 1965. 
Renesse, T. de & J. B. Rietstap. Dictionnaire des figures héraldiques. 7 v. Brussels, 1892–
Based on the description of the armorial bearings in Rietstap's "Armorial général."
Stalins, G. Vocabulaire-atlas héraldique en six langues: Français-English-Deutsch-español-
italiano-nederlandsch. Paris, 1952.
Volborth, C. A. von. The Art of Heraldry. New York & London, 1991, Poole, 1987.
Woodward, J. A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry. Edinburgh & London, 1984, 1894. 
The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages. Ed. R. Fossier. 3 v. Cambridge, UK &
New York, 1986-97.
The New Cambridge Medieval History. Ed. R. McKitterick et al. 7 v. Cambridge, UK & New
York, 1995-
The Oxford History of Medieval Europe.  Ed. G. Holmes. Oxford & New York, 1992.
Repertorium Fontium Historiae Medii Aevi 5 v. Rome, 1962- & online
Approximately midway. Updates A. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica medii aevi: Wegweiser
durch die Geschichtswerke des europäischen Mittelalters bis 1500, Berlin, 1896. An
index to medieval writers; lists manuscripts, editions and translations.
Monumenta Palaeographica Medii Aevi. Brepols.
Original-size facsimile publications, transcripts, critical studies of visual documents
relating to the medieval history of European countries. New collection divided into series:
Series Gallica, Series Hebraica, Series Hispanica; others planned.
Manchester University Press. 
Public portal & texts by subscription (full-text documents).
Sources d’histoire médiévale. Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes (CNRS, Paris).
Editions of medieval texts (chronicles, letters, juridical) in their original language &, in
most cases, translations in modern French.
Monumenta Germaniae Historica.
Ed. G. H. Pertz et al., 32+ v. Hanover, 1826-1934; repr. New York, 1963-65.
Selection available from Brepols, on CD-ROM, with updates, 1996- Description of
Critical publication of medieval historical texts, in series by type (Scriptores, Leges,
Diplomata, Epistolae, Antiquitates).
Iberian peninsula    
Peninsular history, 5-17 cs. A joint project of the American Academy of Research
Historians of Medieval Spain & University of Central Arkansas. Searchable, full-
text. Draws principally from recent but out-of-print university press monographs;
also basic texts & sources (reproduces complete orig. print versions).
A handy commercial site, compiles information on monarchs, Church history,
sources & texts, timelines, biographies, some images.
Medieval Realms: Britain 1066 to 1500. CD-ROM, 1994.
An interactive database of source material in British history; includes texts, images,
sound clips. 
Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores. London, 1858-96; repr. 1964-65.
L’Atelier du médiéviste. Brepols.
Practical handbooks on the auxiliary disciplines in medieval history & on medieval
Vol. 1: Berlioz, J. et al., Identifier sources et citations, 1994.
Ghellinck, J. de. Littérature latine au Moyen Âge, 2 v. Hildesheim, 1969.
York University, Toronto. Numerous collections of pdf documents of various medieval
texts in translation. Includes linguistic information. 
Manitius, M. Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters. 3 v. Munich, 1911-31;
repr. 1964-65. (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 9, Abt. 2, T)
A searchable index of free e-texts, with focus on English texts. Linked with Amazon.
Prof. Douglas B. Killings, hosted by Berkeley Digital Library, Berkeley, CA. A full-text
collection of some of the most important literary works of classical & medieval civilization.
Arranged by title, author, genre, & language. Searchable as a whole.
University of Michigan, “the largest collection of texts in Middle English on the Web.”
The GlobeGate Project, an Internet resource for the study of foreign languages, by D.
A. Gatwood & Bob Peckham.
By Ulrich Harsch. A collection of digitized (non-searchable) literary & non-literary
texts, 8-20 cs.
Connects to databases.
The sites include information, images, music.
1973-, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, quarterly, online Feb. 2004-
Comp. David Lasocki, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
A bibliography.
British academic site, aims at comprehensive coverage of "all the existing fragments of
medieval music."
"The web's largest reference for European Medieval and Renaissance music since
Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich, 1996-.
Dictionary of medieval Latin musical terminology, 500-1500.
"Database of the entire corpus of Latin music theory written during the Middle Ages and
the Renaissance." Compiled at the Center for the History of Music Theory and Literature,
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, from public domain & copyrighted materials "for non-
commercial educational use and scholarship.”
Gregorian chant
Schola Cantorum Bogotensis, Bogotá, Colombia. 
Lessons on Gregorian chants.
University of Western Ontario.
By IMS Study Group, at University of Regensburg, DE.
Data pool for research on Gregorian chant; in English, French & German. 
Princeton University, NJ.
& see below, Medieval Drama links, p. 6.
An international early music society.
University portals
La Trobe University, AU. 
Belaubre, J. Dictionnaire de numismatique médiévale occidentale. Paris, 1996. 
Grierson, P. The Coins of Medieval Europe. London, 1991. (Coins in History)
___. Later Medieval Numismatics (11th-16th Centuries): Selected Studies. London, 1979,
1951. (Collected Studies, 98) 
Reprints 22 articles pub. 1951-77.
Site for “collectors and students of medieval numismatics.” Very good links to information,
texts, bibliographies, images. 
Bautz, F. W. Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon 14 v. Hamm, DE, 1990-98.
Europa Sacra – Online 
Brepols 2004: “The most comprehensive tool for studying Church prelates in the Middle
Ages.” Church prelates & medieval bishoprics, archdioceses & patriarchates obedient to
Rome, to 1503. Based on C. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi…ab anno 1198
(Münster, 1898-) & P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae (Regensburg,
1873-86). Europa Sacra Online: Timetable planned; to be integrated with the wider
online BREPOLiS Medieval Encyclopaedias i.e., linked to Lexikon des Mittelalters &
International Encyclopaedia for the Middle Ages.
Fasti Ecclesiae Gallicanae: Répertoire prosopographique des évêques, dignitaries et
chanoines des diocèses de France de 1200 à 1500. Turnhout, BE, 1996-
Prosopographical repertory of office-holders of the French dioceses, with
biographies & bibliographies.
Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae: The Higher Clergy List. Series 1066-1300, 1300-1541.
New ed., making use of new sources; in progress. London, Institute of Historical
Other national Fasti-projects underway (Brepols).
Bibliographies, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Series
The Catholic Encyclopedia.  15 v.  New York, 1907-12.
Almost all on-line at New Advent, a traditionalist Roman Catholic site
Handy reference – e.g., chronological list of popes
The New Catholic Encyclopedia.  17 v.  New York, 1967-79.
Constable, G. Medieval Monasticism: A Select Bibliography. Toronto & Buffalo, c1976.
Davidson, L. K. & M. Dunn-Wood. Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages: A Research Guide. New
York, 1993. (Garland Medieval Bibliographies, 16; Garland Reference Library of the
Humanities, 1379)
Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Ed. A. Baudrillart, A. de Meyer, R.
Aubert. Paris, 1912- (28 v. thus far) (Encyclopédie des sciences ecclésiastiques, 4)
Founded by Anthony F. Beavers, University of Evansville, IN; ed. N. H. Redington & K. R.
Keck. “A cooperative effort on the part of scholars across the Internet to establish a
hypertext encyclopedia of early Church history (to the Reformation) on the Web.”
Documents (in translation; extensive library), glossary (short essays), scholarly articles,
images (Judeo-Christian iconography & religious art). The Chronology project is
developing a “two-dimensional (temporal and geographical) model of events, persons,
places, etc. that are pertinent in some way to early Church history.” In its early stages but
very promising.
Encyclopedia of Monasticism. Ed. W. M. Johnston. 2 v. Chicago & London, c2000.
Medieval Church Studies. (series) Turnhout, BE, Brepols, 2001-
Vernet, A. La Bible au moyen âge: Bibliographie. Paris, 1989.  
Righetti, M. Manuale di storia liturgica. 4 v. 1950-53. Rev. ed. Milan, 1959-69.
Traditional Roman Catholic Internet site. Texts of traditional Latin Mass, Office,
Sacraments, Chant, liturgical calendar, etc.
Treats Bible studies; Latin Church institutions; the papacy; monasticism & Religious
Orders; the crusades; hagiography; liturgy; philosophy, theology & spirituality.
University of Cologne, DE.
Religion, art history, images of religious subjects, links to other online research tools.
Search engine to over 9,000 Catholic files. Material on many Church-related issues.
Women’s religious communities.
“A scholarly resource for the study of women’s religious communities from 400 to 1600
ART RESOURCES (selected)
IMAGES (comprehensive resources)
International Center of Medieval Art (ICMA). Inventory of photo resources for medieval art
(institutional by country & commercial).
To obtain photographs or transparencies, contact institution (e.g., The Metropolitan
Photographic collections, e.g.
Courtauld Institute Illustration Archives. London, The Institute & Harvey Miller, 1976-
Text & plates.  
Not-for-profit providers
The Art Museum Image Consortium, “enabling educational access to museum
multimedia documentation.”  Collection of digital multimedia documenting now over
50,000 works of art in members’ collections. Licensed to educational institutions,
libraries & museums. To become part of AstSTOR.
Not-for-profit initiative of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, provides curated
collections of art images, associated data & tools for noncommercial & scholarly, non-
profit educational use, with the goal of “of using digital technology to enhance
scholarship, teaching and learning in the arts and associated fields." Its aim is to “work
closely with … providers and users of content from educational and cultural
institutions around the world to construct a non-profit, public utility.” The Charter
Collection of ca. 300,000 images of world art & culture was made available through
site-licensing in the US in July 2004.  
Commercial providers (slides, photographs, digital images), e.g.
Berlin, London, Paris.
Available from Scholars Resource.
Available from Scholars Resource.
Don Beetham, Rutgers.
& see Chris Witcombe’s Art History resources on the web
Large free databases
Mark Harden’s individualistic site.
Artists (browse by name, movement, medium, subject, nationality, women artists),
images, museums, etc. Links to other webpages.
Italian site (in English) of major artists & masterpieces.
From the Australian National University (Prof. Michael Greenhalgh), “Art &
Architecture mainly from the Mediterranean Basin and Japan.” Many images of
medieval art.
Foto Marburg, founded 1913, functions as a German center of documentation for art
history. Very large databases, including Bildindex of Art and Architecture (currently nearly 800,000 items) & Manuscripta Mediaevalia (see below, Manuscript Illumination). Also
database of dissertations & master theses published in Kunstchronik, 1985- (35,900
topics through 2002). 
Publishes Marburger Index. A reference work & guide to art in Germany, 1977-;
holdings for other countries, 1979-. In 3 parts: Photographic inventory (photo archive,
arranged by location; currently a total of ten indexes with 1,720,000 photographs
have been published”); Descriptive inventory; Indexes (biographical, subject,
iconographic, topographical, special). The text-&-catalogue section, issued on
microfiche 1983-90, is now published annually in an augmented version as a
database on CD-ROM.
A large collection of digitized artworks. Operates with mirror sites.
40,000 digitized images of paintings, drawings, prints & photographs of architecture &
sculpture from the Institute's collections.
Searches several major European museums’ & galleries' online collections. English &
French versions.
The French Ministry of Culture's online database featuring works of art from numerous
national museums (not only art). Virtual tours, exhibitions, easily searchable. 
A quirky site, with a variety of links.
Searches across Scandinavian databases.
English version under construction. 4 linked online databases access the scholarly
collections: Western art of the Middle Ages-present. See also below, Museums,
Libraries, Scholarly Institutions & Associations / Centers for Medieval Studies,
Research Institutes, Societies.
RKDimages: ca. 60,000 records & images of works of art (=ca. 15% of descriptions,
<1% images entered [of the 6 million total images, the largest visual document
collection in the world], Early Netherlandish art priority). Iconographic research via
Iconclass or a comprehensive thesaurus of subject references; also searches
providing insight into Dutch & Flemish art production. 
Italian art.
Italian site, includes webpages on sculpture & architecture, arranged chronologically.
Modest coverage & image quality. 
Created by Emil Kren & Daniel Marx.
A virtual museum & searchable database of European painting & sculpture, Gothic-
Baroque periods (1150-1800), currently containing approximately 11,600 images.
Offers dual window mode for side-by-side viewing. Includes art tours such as
“Overview of Sculptors…”).
Nicolas Pioch, Paris. A smaller collection, but good images. Artists, themes indexes,
Digitized collections of academic institutions, e.g.
Digital Image Access Project at Columbia University 
Prof. Joseph Connors.
Free-use image resources made available for the educational community by individual
scholars, e.g.
Prof. Chris Witcombe, Sweet Briar College, VA. Meta site, online since 1995. 
Prof. Pippin (Perette Elizabeth) Michelli. Includes browsers for art history (good
selections in Romanesque, Gothic sections) & stained glass.     
Prof. Allan T. Kohl, Minneapolis College of Art & Design.
Prof. Jeffery Howe, Boston College.
Prof. Mary Ann Sullivan, Bluffton College. Relatively large (10,000 images) & growing,
current; annotated. Includes multiple views & provides access to images
chronologically, by location & by artist’s name.
Prof. Alison Stones, University of Pittsburgh.
& many more accessible through Medieval Studies aggregators.
General e-resources, e.g.
Includes access to the Bridgeman Art Library & some
CD-ROM: Some collections are available in this medium, e.g.
English parish churches. Multi-volume series of cd-roms, based on photographs by
Donna Chaproniere now at the History of Art Department, University of Leicester, UK.
Brepols, 2 releases so far.
With analytical descriptions, compare with Pevsner’s postwar surveys
LITERATURE & IMAGES (primary & secondary sources)
International Medieval Bibliography (IMB): Interdisciplinary Bibliography of Europe, North
Africa and the Middle Near East (300-1500). IMB Online (2001-, Brepols)
Leading bibliography of articles, comprehensive & current. More than 300,000 classified
articles in over 4,500 periodicals & 5,000 miscellany vols. published worldwide. No
abstracts. International Medieval Institute, University of Leeds, UK (info site:, 1967-, semi-annual, available in print, on CD-
ROM &, enhanced & enriched, online 1978-. Brepols “will expand in a near future its time
span to Late Antiquity.” Part of the BREPOLiS Medieval Bibliographies, live link with
LexMA Online & to Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale.
Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale – Online: International Bibliography of Monographs.
Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale, Université de Poitiers. Brepols,
“A comprehensive, current bibliography of monographs & titles of miscellany volumes
published worldwide; 40,000 entries, published 1958-2003, in the first year, initially drawn
from Cahiers de civilisation médiévale.” Will complement IMB. 
Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, Xe-XIIe siècles. Poitiers, Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de
Civilisation Médiévale, quarterly, 1958-
Classed bibliography, issued as a supplement to Cahiers. All Brepols databases to be
Crosby, E. U., C. J. Bishko & R. L. Kellogg. Medieval Studies: A Bibliographical Guide. New
York, 1983. (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, 427) 
Classified bibliography; includes art & architecture.
International Census of Doctoral Dissertations in Medieval Art. ICMA.
1982-93 in print, to go online, updated.
Rouse, R. H. Serial Bibliographies for Medieval Studies. Assisted by J. H. Claxton & M. D.
Metzger. Berkeley, CA, 1969. (Publications of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance
Studies, 3)
above, Subscription gateways).
Specialist bibliographies, e.g.
Chapman, G. Mosan Art: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, MA, 1988. (A Reference
Publication in Art History)
Gibson, W. S. Hieronymus Bosch: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, MA, 1983. (A
Reference Publication in Art History)
Lord, C. Royal French Patronage of Art in the Fourteenth Century: An Annotated
Bibliography. Boston, MA, 1985. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
Meulen, J. van der, R. Hoyer & D. Cole. Chartres: Sources and Literary Interpretation: A
Critical Bibliography. Boston, MA, 1989. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
International Directory of Medievalists (IDM) – Online. 
Continues the printed editions. Directory of specialists from over 70 countries;
international compilation, coordinated by the Fédération Internationale des Instituts
d’Etudes Médiévales (FIDEM). Brepols 2004-
Lee Sorensen, Duke University Libraries. Biographical and methodological information
about art historians. Work in progress, 1986-
Dahmus, J. H. Dictionary of Medieval Civilization. New York, 1984.  
Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Ed. J. R. Strayer. 13 v. New York, 1982-89. Suppl. ed. W. C.
Jordan, 2004-
Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Ed. A. Vauchez et al. 2 v. Paris, Cambridge, UK & Rome,
Graboïs, A. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Medieval Civilization. London,1980.  
Le Goff, J., J. C. Schmitt & F. Alessio. Dictionnaire raisonné de l'Occident médiéval. Paris,
Lexikon des Mittelalters (LexMA). LexMA Online (2004-, Brepols)
Standard encyclopedia for medieval studies; comprehensive, interdisciplinary coverage
300-1500 for the whole of Europe & parts of the Middle East & North Africa. Almost
36,700 entries. Ed. R. Auty et al., Munich & Zurich, Metzler Verlag, 1977-99, 10 v.;
available in print, on CD-ROM & from Brepols online: searchable in English (headwords,
subject terms, proper nouns, key concepts) with inbuilt translation aids; fully exportable;
live link with IMB Online; supplements will appear in 
International Encyclopaedia for the Middle Ages – Online
Full-text encyclopedia of “all aspects of the visual arts world wide.” Articles, images,
bibliographies, biographies, links, search, browse & explore options.  
Art dictionary. Links to artworks demonstrating the terms. 
Italian art.
The Marburger Index (see above, Images / |Bildarchiv Foto Marburg
Most serials continue to be published in print. Some are becoming available also online, with
typically 3-to-5-year moving walls. Increasingly,  periodicals appear on the Internet as free
1917-, New York, CAA, quarterly, available online through JSTOR3
Art de l'enluminure: Art & métiers du livre 
2002-, Dijon, FATON, quarterly
Art History: Journal of the Association of Art Historians
1978-, Blackwell Publishing, bi-monthly, online through EBSCO, Ingenta
Arte medievale: periodico internazionale di critica dell'arte medievale 
1983-, Rome, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, semi-annual, indexed Avery, BHA,
Dyabola, Index of Articles on Jewish Studies, RILM
Artibus et Historiae
1980-, Venice, IRSA; distributed by LICOSA, semi-annual
Bulletin monumental
1834-, Paris, CNRS for Société Française d’Archéologie, quarterly
1903-, monthly 1948- London, online through JSTOR3
Cahiers archéologiques, fin de l’antiquité et moyen âge
1945-, Paris, annual, irregular
Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, Xe-XIIe siècles
1958-, Université de Poitiers, Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale,
quarterly; now Brepols database (see above, Bibliographies)
Classed bibliography.
Congrès Archéologique de France: Session tenue à … par la Société Française
1834-, annual
Gazette des beaux-arts 
1859-, Paris, monthly
1963-, New York, International Center of Medieval Art, semi-annual, online through
2002-, annual
The Israel Museum Journal 
1982-, Jerusalem, The Museum, annual
Jewish Art
1974-, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Center for Jewish Art, annual
Journal of the Early Book Society (The Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of
Manuscripts and Printing History; JEBS)
1997-, New York, Pace University, annual
Focuses on English and Continental works 1350-1550.
1937-, London, now annual, available through JSTOR3
Manuscripta: A Journal for Manuscript Research
1977-, Vatican Film Library, St. Louis University Library; Brepols, semi-annual
Paleography, codicology, illumination, diplomatics, book production, library history,
reading, literacy, textual criticism, etc. 
Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft
1924-, Marburg a.d. Lahn, Verlag des Kunstgeschichtlichen Seminars der Universität,
The Medal
1982-, London, British Art Medal Society, semi-annual
Medieval Encounters: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Culture in Confluence and Dialogue
1995-, Leiden & New York, 3/year, online through OCLC FirstSearch, EBSCO, Ingenta
Medievalia et Humanistica: Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Culture
1943-, Boulder, CO, annual
Medieval and Neo-Latin Society, 1970-72; Medieval and Renaissance Society, 1973-
"An American journal for the Middle Ages and Renaissance." 
1988-, Florence, Alinari, semi-annual   
Les Monuments historiques de la France
1936-, Paris, Caisse Nationale des Monuments Historiques et des Sites, quarterly
Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst
1906-, Munich, annual
Oud Holland
1883-, The Hague, Netherlands Institute for Art History, quarterly
2002-, St.-Denis, F, now quarterly
Manuscript sources of the medieval West.
The Profane Arts of the Middle Ages / Les arts profanes du moyen âge.
1990s-, Misericordia International (organization); R. D. Shelden Enterprises, US; Brepols,
Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art / Belgisch tijdschrift voor oudheidkunde en
1931-, Brussels, L’Académie Royale d’Archéologie de Belgique, quarterly 
Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte
1931-, Tübingen, irregular
Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France, Bulletin 
1857-, Paris, annual
Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies
1926-, Cambridge, MA, Medieval Academy of America, quarterly, online through JSTOR1
Studies in Iconography: A Cross-disciplinary Approach to Visual Culture Before 1600
1975-99 Kalamazoo, MI, Western Michigan University, Medieval Institute Publications;
1999- Princeton University, Index of Christian Art, annual
Theory of iconography & cross-disciplinary studies.
1990-, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, semi-annual
Waffen- und Kostümkunde: Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für historische Waffen- und
1959-, Munich, semi-annual
No longer published:
Cahiers de l‘art médiéval 
1947-71/73, Strasbourg, Centre Alsacien d’Art Roman
1998- In German.
1987-, Gainesville, FL, University of Florida
Formerly the Bryn Mawr Medieval Review. 1993- Kalamazoo, MI, Western Michigan
University, Medieval Institute Publications. 
Reviews of current work in all areas of medieval studies; operates as a moderated
distribution list (e-mail to subscribers).  
University of Essen, DE. Searchable.
Periodical databases
Provider of electronic archive editions of scholarly journals; titles include Art Bulletin, The
Burlington Magazine, Gesta, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Speculum.
Titles include Art History: Journal of the Association of Art Historians, Medieval
Online union catalog of 3 German research institutes: Kunsthistorisches Institut,
Florence; Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich; Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rome. Jan.
2004: “contains about 660,000 titles, of which 222,000 articles.” Continues retrospective
conversion of card catalogs. 
many German & other library catalogs.
Ars Neerlandica: Studies in the History of Art of the Low Countries. Kortrijk, BE, Van
Ghemmert, 1979-80. 
Dutch iconography & iconology, only 2 titles published.  
Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte des Mittelalters und der Renaissance. Münster, Rhema, 1995-
Most vols. derived from the authors’ dissertations.
The British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions, 1975–. 
Devoted to studies of individual cathedrals. 
Council of Europe exhibitions, 1954-
Courtauld Institute Illustration Archives. London, The Institute & Harvey Miller, 1976- 
Text & plates.  
Italia romanica. Milan, Jaca Book, 1978-
Madrider Forschungen. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Madrid (Berlin, de
Gruyter), 1956- 
Scholarly monographs on ancient & medieval art & archeology in Spain.
Medieval Art in Norway. Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, 1974-
Medieval Craftsmen. British Museum Press & University of Toronto Press, 1991-92. 
Handy vols. on masons & sculptors, painters, glass-painters, scribes & illuminators,
armourers, goldsmiths, embroiderers, English tillers. 
Le Monde roman, 1060-1220. Paris, Gallimard, 1980s.
La Nuit des temps. Saint-Léger, Yonne, Zodiaque, 1954-. 
Romanesque architecture & art. Divided according to feudal regions of Europe, each volume
serves as an inventory of churches & other structures in that area, with plans, elevations,
maps, diagrams, & colored illus. & indexes. Beautifully presented & illustrated. Many earlier
vols. have been revised or reprinted.
The Oxford History of English Art. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1940-
Princeton University, Department of Art and Archaeology, Index of Christian Art, Occasional
Papers. Princeton UP, 1992-. 
Papers issuing from colloquia sponsored by the ICA. 
Publications of the International Center of Medieval Art, 1979-
Schriftenreihe der Kommission für Niedersächsische Bau- und Kunstgeschichte bei der
Braunschweigischen Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft (Berlin, Akademie Verlag), 1983-. 
Regional architecture & sculpture. Each vol. consists of the published papers of a
symposium organized by the Kommission.
Société Française d’Archéologie, Bibliothèque. Paris, CNRS, 1971- 
Studies of French architectural monuments based on dissertations.
Studies in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art History. London, Harvey Miller.
Studies of the Warburg Institute. London, The Institute, 1938-
Museum collection catalogs: important series include those published by
London National Gallery
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 
Victoria & Albert Museum, London
Artworks by medium: See below, section By Medium
See Series section above
& especially section on Topographical Surveys/Atlases/Timelines in Mary Clare Altenhofen’s
contribution “Early Medieval Art (c. 500-c.1000).”
Listed selectively throughout.
ICONCLASS.  Ed. Henri van de Waal et al.  17 v. Amsterdam, 1973-85. Online 1991-
Iconographical indexing system of western art subjects, with related bibliography, lists of
relevant artwork, & an alphabetical index. The most comprehensive contextual tool for
interpreting iconography to date. Users share common platform &, by applying Iconclass
to a collection of images, subscribe to the accumulated iconographic knowledge of other
Iconclass users, among them the Index of Christian Art, Bildarchiv Foto Marburg
(Germany), the Witt Library at the Courtauld Institute of Art (UK), the Getty Provenance
Index (USA), the ICCD (Italy), the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Dutch Royal Library, The
Hague, The Netherlands), & many other institutions. Developed by Henri van de Waal
(1910-72), Prof. of art history at the University of Leiden, & completed by his staff. 
Biedermann, H. Dictionary of Symbolism.  New York, 1992. Trans. of Knaurs Lexicon der
Symbole, 1989.
Friedman, J. B. & J. M. Wegmann. Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide. New York,
1998. (Garland Medieval Bibliographies, 20; Garland Reference Library of the
Humanities, 1870)
Hopper, V. F. Medieval Number Symbolism: Its Sources, Meaning, and Influence on
Thought and Expression. New York, 1938; Mineola, NY, 2000.
Ross, L. Medieval Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT, 1996.
Sears, E. & T. K. Thomas, eds. Reading Medieval Images: The Art Historian and the Object.
Ann Arbor, MI, 2002.
A useful guide from Rutgers University, “meant to provide a beginning point for the study”
of iconography.
Barbier de Montault, X. Traité d'iconographie chrétienne. 2 v. Paris, 1890.
Belting, H. Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art. Chicago,
1995. Trans. of Bild und Kult, Munich, 1990. 
A collection of essays on iconography of medieval art.
Cabrol, F. & H. Leclercq, eds. Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de la liturgie. 15 v.
Paris, 1907-53.
Esmeijer, A. C. Divina quaternitatis: A Preliminary Study in the Method and Application of
Visual Exegesis. Amsterdam, 1978.
Ferguson, G. W. Signs and Symbols in Christian Art. New York, 1954. 
A useful handbook.
Friedman, J. B. & J. M. Wegmann. Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide. New York,
1998. (Garland Medieval Bibliographies, 20; Garland Reference Library of the
Humanities, 1870)
Hall, J. Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. London & New York, 1974, 1979. 
Hirn, Y. The Sacred Shrine: A Study of the Poetry and Art of the Catholic Church. London,
1912; repr. Boston, 1957, with additions to the bibliography & notes by C. H. Talbot. 
A classic; an iconographic handbook with clear explanations of custom, belief, dogma,
Early Apostolic times-1400 (some materials to 1700). “The most important archive of
medieval art in existence and the most specialized resource for the iconographer.”
Archive provides access to complex information on approximately 200,000 photographic
reproductions. Growing subscription database, searchable under more than 150
categories of information & also by Iconclass, presently contains over 20,000 work of art
records & over 60,000 images, many published for the first time. By subscription. 
Kaske, R. E., A. Groos & M. W. Twomey. Medieval Christian Literary Imagery: A Guide to
Interpretation. Toronto & Buffalo, NY, 1988. (Toronto Medieval Bibliographies, 11)
Künstle, K. Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst. 2 v. Freiburg i. Br., 1926–28.
Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Ed. H. Aurenhammer. Vienna, 1959-67.
No more published.  
Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Ed. E. Kirschbaum et al. 8 v. Rome, 1968-76.
An important scholarly dictionary; articles include types of representation, iconography,
sources, bibliography, illustrations.
Lexikon der Marienkunde. Ed. K. Algermissen et al. Regensburg, 1967. Only vol. 1
published (A-E). 
A scholarly dictionary dealing with all aspects of the Virgin Mary & her cult.
Mâle, E. Religious Art in France. 3 v. Princeton, N.J., 1978-86. (Studies in Religious
Iconography by Émile Mâle; Bollingen series, 90:1-3) 
Vols. on 12 c., 13 c., Late Middle Ages.
Molsdorf, W. Christliche Symbolik der mittelalterlichen Kunst. Leipzig, 1926; repr. Graz,
1968; Stuttgart, 1970. 
A handbook of Christian art types, antitypes, & symbols as represented in New & Old
Testament scenes. Systematically arranged under 1,153 categories.
Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte. Ed. O. Schmitt et al. 8 v. to date. Stuttgart,
Réau, L. Iconographie de l’art chrétien. 3 v. in 6.  Paris, 1955-59; repr. Nendeln,
Liechtenstein, 1974-77. 
A classic, but not without errors & inconsistencies.  
Rohault de Fleury, C. La messe: Études archéologiques sur ses monuments. 8 v. Paris,
On the Mass & its iconography.
Schiller, G. Iconography of Christian Art. 4 v. in 5. Greenwich, CT, 1971- Trans. of
Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst, Gütersloh, 1966-91.
An important iconographic encyclopedia, with numerous references, bibliographies,
indexes, illustrations. 
Schneider Berrenberg, R. Kreuz, Kruzifix: Eine Bibliographie. Munich, 1973. 
Art history & iconology of the cross & the crucifix. Indexes of names, places, subjects.
Sill, G. G. A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art. New York, 1975. 
Handy, clear, useful, index, bibliography, illustrations.
Thoby, P. Le crucifix, des origins au Concile de Trente: Étude iconographique. Nantes,
1959, suppl. 1963. 
History of the crucifix, with descriptions & analyses of examples in all media.
Timmers, J. J. M. Symboliek en Iconographie der christelijke Kunst. Roermond-Maaseik, NL,
Toubert, H. Un Art dirigé: Réforme grégorienne et iconographie. Paris, 1990. (Histoire) 
Refers to Pope Gregory VII (d. 1085).
The Bible
Cornell, H. Biblia pauperum. Stockholm, 1925.
Laborde, A. de. La Bible moralisée illustrée, conservée à Oxford, Paris et Londres. 5 v.
Paris, 1911-27.
Braun, J. Tracht und Attribute der Heiligen in der deutschen Kunst. Stuttgart, 1943; repr.
A scholarly illustrated dictionary of the dress & attributes of the saints depicted in
German art.
Ferrando Roig, J. Iconografía de los santos. Barcelona, 1950. 
Spanish art. 
Kaftal, G. Saints in Italian Art. 4 v. Florence, 1952-85.
Ricci, E. Mille santi nell’arte. Milan, 1931. 
A dictionary of saints in art, listing artworks. Many illustrations; indexes.
Ross, L. Text, Image, Message: Saints in Medieval Manuscript Illustrations. Westport,
CT, 1994.
Prof. Felix Just, S.J., Loyola Marymount University. Site contains both texts & images.
Marle, R. van. Iconographie de l’art profane au moyen-âge et à la Renaissance et la
décoration des demeures. 2 v. The Hague, 1931-32; repr. New York, 1971.
A comprehensive study of the secular iconography of the Middle Ages & Renaissance.
Tervarent, G. de. Attributs et symboles dans l’art profane, 14501600: Dictionnaire d’un
langage perdu. 3 v. Geneva, 195864. (Travaux d’humanisme et renaissance, 29)
Single sources
Bonaventure, Saint, Cardinal (1221-74). [Spurious and doubtful works]. Meditations on the
Life of Christ: An Illustrated Manuscript of the Fourteenth Century. Paris, Bibliothèque
Nationale, Ms. Ital. 115. Compl. & ed. I. Ragusa & R. B. Green, trans. I. Ragusa.
Princeton, NJ, 1961, 1977. (Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology, 35) 
Popular medieval book on the life of Christ; much of the narrative not in the Gospels;
manuscript profusely illustrated; indexes locations of literary & pictorial motifs. 
Cennino Cennini. Il libro dell’arte. (c. 1390) Critical ed.& trans. D. V. Thompson, Jr. 2 v. New
Haven, CT & London, 1932-33. 
Other editions: F. Brunello, Vicenza, 1971; M. Serchi, Florence, 1991; C. Deroche, Paris,
Durandus, Gulielmus, bp. of Mende. Rationale divinorum officorum. (c. 1286) English trans.
of book 1 as The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, ed. J. M. Neale & B.
Webb. Leeds, 1843; repr. New York, 1973. 
Trans. of book 3 as Sacred Vestments, T. H. Passmore, London, 1899. 
Hugh of St Victor (1096-1141). Eruditionis didascalicae. English trans. as Didascalicon of
Hugh of Saint Victor: A Medieval Guide to the Arts, ed. J. Taylor. New York, 1961, 1991
(Records of Western Civilization)
Commentary: Illich, I. In the Vineyard of the Text: A Commentary to Hugh's Didascalicon.
Chicago, 1993 (1st ed. Paris, 1991).
Jacobus da Voragine (c. 1230-1298). The Golden Legend. Trans. & adapted G. Ryan & H.
Ripperger. 2 v. London & New York, 1941; repr. Salem, NH, 1987. 
Popular stories of saints, arranged by their feast days; were widely used by medieval &
Renaissance artists.  
Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis (1081-1151). Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St.-Denis
and Its Art Treasures. Crit. ed. & trans. E. Panofsky, Princeton, NJ, 1946; 2. rev. ed. G.
Panofsky-Soergel, Princeton, NJ, 1979. 
Theophilus, Presbyter, called also Rugerus. De diversis artibus (ms. c. 1100-1150). Critical
ed. & trans. C. R. Dodwell, The Various Arts, London, Edinburgh & Paris, 1961; repr.
Oxford, 1986. 
Other English trans. J. H. Hawthorne & C. S. Smith, Chicago, 1963; repr. 1979. 
Vasari, G. Le vite de' più eccelenti architetti, pittori et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a'
tempi nostri. Florence, 1550 (ed. C. Ricci, 4 v., Rome, 1927). 1568 (ed. P. Barocchi & R.
Bettarini, 7 v., Florence, 1966-76).
A searchable archive of the works mentioned.
Villard de Honnecourt. The Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt (ms. c. 1230-35). Ed. T. R.
Bowie, Bloomington, IN, 1959, 1974; Westport, CT, 1982. 
Critical editions: H. R. Hahnloser, Kritische Gesamtausgabe des Bauhüttenbuches  der
Pariser Nationabibliothek, 2. rev. ed., Graz, 1972; A. Erlande-Brandenburg, et al., Carnet
de Villard de Honnecourt: d’après le manuscrit conservé a la Bibliothèque nationale de
Paris (no. 19093), Paris, 1986.
Ross Woodrow, University of Newcastle, AU. See below, Drawing / Portfolio of Villard
Grinten, E. van der. Elements of Art Historiography in Medieval Texts: An Analytic Study.
Trans. The Hague, 1969. 
Compiles medieval texts referring directly to works of art & artists. 
Lehmann-Brockhaus, O. Lateinische Schriftquellen zur Kunst in England, Wales und
Schottland, vom Jahre 901 bis zum Jahre 1307. 5 v. Munich, 1955-60.
(Veröffentlichungen des Zentralinstituts für Kunstgeschichte in München, 1)
___. Schriftquellen zur Kunstgeschichte des 11. und 12. Jahrhunderts für Deutschland,
Lothringen und Italien. 2 v. Berlin, 1938; repr. New York, 1971. (Burt Franklin Research
and Source Works Series, 753; Art History and Art Reference Series, 29)
Merrifield, M. P. Original Treatises, Dating from the XIIth to the XVIII Centuries on the Arts of
Painting, in Oil, Miniature, Mosaic, and on Glass … 2 v. London, 1849; repr. New York,
Mortet, V. Recueil de texts relatifs à l’histoire de l’architecture et à la condition des architects
en France, au moyen âge, XIe-XIIe siècles. Paris, 1911. (Collection de texts pour servir à
l’étude et à l’enseignement de l’historie, 44)
Mortet, V. & P. Deschamps. Recueil de texts relatifs à l’histoire de l’architecture et à la
condition des architects en France, au moyen âge, XIIe-XIIIe siècles. Paris, 1929.
(Collection de texts pour servir à l’étude et à l’enseignement de l’historie, 51)
Schlosser, J. von. Quellenbuch: Repertorio di fonti per la storia dell’arte del medioevo (secoli
IV-XV). Ed. J. Vegh. Florence, 1992. (Fonti per la storia dell’arte, 2) Rev., enl. ed. of
Quellenbuch zur Kunstgeschichte des abendländischen Mittelalters, Vienna, 1896
(Quellenschrifte für Kunstgeschichte, N. F., 7); repr. Hildesheim, 1976.
Collections of sources in translation
Davis-Weyer, C., ed. Early Medieval Art, 300-1150. Englewood, NJ, 1971; repr. Toronto,
Buffalo & London, 1986. (Sources and Documents in the History of Art) 
Excerpts from selected texts.
Frankl, P. T. The Gothic: Literary Sources and Interpretations through Eight Centuries.
Princeton, NJ, 1960. 
Bibliography up to c. 1950, selected quotations, with critical commentary.
Frisch, T. G. Gothic Art, 1140-c. 1450. Englewood, NJ, 1971. (Sources and Documents in
the History of Art) 
Excerpts from selected texts.
Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England, 1200-1400. Exh. cat. J. J. G. Alexander & P.
Binski. Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1988. 
The Art of Devotion in the Late Middle Ages in Europe, 1300-1500. Exh. cat. H. W. van Os et
al. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1994-95. Princeton, NJ, 1994.
Aubert, M. et al. The Art of the High Gothic Era. New York, 1965. Trans. of Le Triomphe de
l'art gothique. (Art of the World)
Avril, F., X. Barral i Altet & D. Gaborit-Chopin. Le Monde roman 1060-1220. 2 v. Paris, 1982-
87. (L'Univers des Formes, 29-30) v. 1. Le Temps des Croisades; v. 2. Les Royaumes
Barral i Altet, X., ed. Artistes, artisans et production artistique au Moyen Age. 3 v. Paris,
___. Chronologie de l’art du moyen âge. Paris, 2003.
Benton, J. R. Art of the Middle Ages. New York, 2002. (World of Art)
Buckton, D. & T. A. Heslop, eds. Studies in Medieval Art and Architecture Presented to Peter
Lasko. London, 1994.
Busch, H. & B. Lohse, eds. Pre-Romanesque Art. London & New York, 1966. Trans. of
Vorromanische Kunst und ihre Wurzeln, Frankfurt a. M., 1965. (Buildings and Sculpture
of Europe)
Cahn, W. Studies in Medieval Art and Interpretation. London, 2000.
Calkins, R. G. Monuments of Medieval Art. New York, 1979; repr. Ithaca, NY, 1985.
Camille, M. The Gothic Idol: Ideology and Image-making in Medieval Art. Cambridge, UK &
New York, 1989. (Cambridge New Art History and Criticism)
Català Roca, F. & N. de Dalmases Bulañá, eds. Historia de l’art català, v. 1-3, Barcelona,
Courtens, A. Belgique romane: Architecture, art monumental. Paris, 1969. (Collection Art et
Demus, O. Byzantine Art and the West. New York & London, 1970. (The Wrightsman
Lectures, 3)
Duby, G. The Age of the Cathedrals: Art and Society, 980-1420. Chicago, 1981.
___. Medieval Art. 3 v. Paris, 1995. Individual vols. first pub. 1965-67.
Durliat, M. L’Art roman. Paris, 1982. (L'Art et les grandes civilizations, 12)
Egbert, V. W. The Mediaeval Artist at Work. Princeton, NJ, 1967.
English Romanesque Art, 1066–1200. Exh. cat. ed. G. Zarnecki, J. Holt & T. Holland.
Hayward Gallery, London, 1984.
Erlande-Brandenburg, A. Gothic Art.. New York, 1989. Trans. of L’Art gothique, Paris, 1983.
Evans, J. Art in Medieval France, 9871498. London & New York, 1948.  
Les Fastes du gothique: Le siècle de Charles V. Exh. cat. B. Donzet & C. Siret. Grand
Palais, Paris, 1981.
Flanders in the Fifteenth Century: Art and Civilization. Cat. of exh. Masterpieces of Flemish
Art: Van Eyck to Bosch. Detroit Institute of Arts, 1960.
Focillon, H. The Art of the West in the Middle Ages. 3. ed. J. Bony. Trans. of L’Art
d’Occident, le moyen âge, roman et gothique. Ithaca, NY, 1980. (Landmarks in Art
Ford, B. The Middle Ages. Cambridge, UK & New York, 1988. (The Cambridge Guide to the
Arts in Britain, 2)
Gothic: Art for England, 1400-1547. Exh. cat. R. Marks. Victoria & Albert Museum, London,
Grégoire, R., L. Moulin & R. Oursel. The Monastic Realm. New York, 1985. 
Good illustrations.
Grodecki, L. et al., eds. Die Zeit der Ottonen und Salier. Freiburg & Munich, 1973.
(Universum der Kunst, 20)
Hartog, E. den. Romanesque Architecture and Sculpture in the Meuse Valley. Leeuwarden &
Mechelen, 1992. (Maaslandse monografieën, Groot format)
Hassig, D. The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature. New
York, 1999. (Garland Medieval Casebooks, 22; Garland Reference Library of the
Humanities, 2076) 
Hausherr, R, ed. Die Zeit der Staufer: GeschichteKunstKultur. 5 v. Landesmuseum
Stuttgart, Württemberg, 1977.
Hofstätter, H. H. Art of the Late Middle Ages. New York, 1968. (Panorama of World Art)
Huizinga, J. The Waning of the Middle Ages. London, 1924; rev. ed. 1955.
Huth, H. Künstler und Werkstatt der Spätgotik. 4. ed. Darmstadt, 1981, c1967.
The International Style: The Arts in Europe around 1400. Exh. cat. Walters Art Gallery,
Baltimore, 1962.
Jantzen, H. Ottonische Kunst. New, enl. crit. ed. W. Schenkluhn. Berlin, 1990.
Kidson, P. The Medieval World. London & New York, 1967. (Landmarks of the World's Art)
Kutal, A. Gothic Art in Bohemia and Moravia. London & New York, 1972.
Lasko, P. Ars Sacra, 8001200. 2. ed. New Haven, CT, 1994. (The Pelican History of Art)
Legner, A., A. Hirmer & I. Ernstmeier-Hirmer. Deutsche Kunst der Romanik. Munich, 1982. 
Lindley, P. Making Medieval Art. Donington, 2003.
Martindale, A. The Rise of the Artist in the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. London,
1972. (Library of Medieval Civilization) 
Mirror of the Medieval World. Exh. cat. ed. W. D. Wixom. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York, 1999. 
Os, H. W. et al. The Way to Heaven: Relic Veneration in the Middle Ages. Baarn, NL, 2000.
Die Parler und der schöne Stil, 1350–1400: Europäische Kunst unter den Luxemburgern. 5
v.  Exh. cat. ed. A. Legner. Cologne, Schnütgen-Museum, 1978-80.
Portugal en el medievo: De los monasterios a la monarquía. Exh. cat. Fundación Banco
Central Hispano, Madrid, 1992.
Racz, I. & R. Pylkkänen. Art Treasures of Medieval Finland. New York, 1967, 1961. Trans. of
Suomen keskiajan taideaarteita.
Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400. Exh. cat. Cologne, Kunsthalle; Brussels,
Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, 1972.
Ross, L. Artists of the Middle Ages. Westport, CT, 2003. (Artists of an Era)
Seibt, F., E. Bachmann, & K. M. Swoboda. Gothic Art in Bohemia: Architecture, Sculpture
and Painting. Oxford & New York, 1977. Trans. of Gotik in Böhmen, Munich, 1969.
Snyder, J. Medieval Art: PaintingSculptureArchitecture, 4th14th Century. New York,
Stoddard, W. S. Monastery and Cathedral in France. Middletown, CT, 1966; repr. New York,
1972, as Art and Architecture in Medieval France: Medieval Architecture, Sculpture,
Stained Glass, Manuscripts, the Art of the Church Treasuries.
Stokstad, M. Medieval Art. 2.ed. Boulder, CO, 2004.  
Swaan, W. Art & Architecture of the Late Middle Ages, 1350 to the Advent of the
Renaissance. New York, 1982, 1977 (orig. pub. as The Late Middle Ages, London,
Swarzenski, H. Monuments of Romanesque Art: The Art of Church Treasures in North-
Western Europe. 2. ed. London & Chicago, 1974.
Thompson, F. H., ed. Art and Patronage in the English Romanesque. London, 1986.
(Society of Antiquaries of London, Occasional Paper, New series, 8)
Timmers, J. A Handbook of Romanesque Art. London, 1965; New York,1969, 1976. Trans.
of Atlas van het Romaans.
Toesca, P. Il medioevo. 2 v. Turin, 1927 (vol. 3 of A. Venturi, ed., Storia dell’arte italiana),
1965 (vol. 3 of G. E. Rizzo & Toesca, Storia dell'arte classica e italiana)
Toman, R. & A. Bednorz. The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne,
Treasures from Medieval France. Exh. cat. ed. W. D. Wixom. Cleveland Museum of Art,
Cleveland, OH, 1967.
Verdon, T., ed. Monasticism and the Arts. Syracuse, NY, 1984.
Vergnolle, E. L’Art roman en France: Architecture-sculpture-peinture. Paris, 1994.
Walle, J. L. van der. Gothic Art in Belgium. Brussels, 1971.
Yarza, J. Introducción al arte español: Baja Edad Media: los siglos del gótico. Madrid, 1992.
The Year 1200. Exh., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,  1970. Exh. cat. ed. K.
Hoffmann; A Background Survey ed. F. Deuchler, New York, 1970, 2 v. (The Cloisters
Studies in Medieval Art, 1-2); A Symposium, F. Avril et al., New York, 1975.
Zarnecki, G. Art of the Medieval World: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, the Sacred Arts.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1975. (Library of Art History)
___. The Monastic Achievement. London & New York, 1972. (Library of Medieval
___. Romanesque. London & New York, 1989. (The Universe History of Art and
Architecture) Pub. as Romanesque Art, 1971.
Digital resources, e.g.
A guide to online resources, ed. James Mills (on the ORB).
Videorecordings, e.g.
Wood, M, P. Crossley, W. W. Clark & A. Prache. Art of the Western World: A White Garment
of Churches. Santa Barbara, CA., Intellimation, 1989.
BY MEDIUM (using BHA [Bibliography of the History of Art] categories)
Sources & Images
Gateway to architecture around the world & across history. Documents buildings &
architects, with 3-D models, images, architectural drawings, commentaries,
bibliographies, web links. Searchable by building, architect, place name, architectural
type, etc. Uneven coverage for medieval architecture.
Architecture & furniture (mobilier) in France, 300-1950. Information & images; multiple
access points: geographic, thematic, iconographic, by lists. 
Links to databases (sources & images).
World survey, 1998- , under development.
Swiss site, with good selection of links to Romanesque & Gothic architecture, by
Warnke, M. Bau und Überbau: Soziologie der mittelalterlichen Architektur nach den
Schriftquellen. Frankfurt a. M., 1984, c1976.
Publications of the Commission des Monuments Historiques, Archives, France.
Davies, M. Romanesque Architecture: A Bibliography. New York, 1993. (A Reference
Publication in Art History)
Dictionaries, Encyclopedias
Harvey, J. H. & A. Oswald. English Mediaeval Architects: A Biographical Dictionary down to
1550: Including Master Masons, Carpenters, Carvers, Building Contractors, and Others
Responsible for Design. Rev. ed. Gloucester, 1984.
The Buildings of England. Harmondsworth, UK & New York, Penguin Books, 1951- . Ed. N.
Pevsner et al.
By county. 
Text-only index: Comp. M. Good, Oxford UP, 1995, on CD-ROM.
The Buildings of Ireland. Harmondsworth, UK & New York, Penguin Books, 1979–
The Buildings of Scotland. Harmondsworth, UK & New York, Penguin Books, 1978–
The Buildings of Wales. Harmondsworth, UK & New York, Penguin Books, 1979–
Crossley, P. “Medieval Architecture and Meaning: The Limits of Iconography.” Burlington
Magazine, CXXX, 1988, 11621.
Krautheimer, R. ‘”An Introduction to an ‘Iconography of Medieval Architecture’.” Journal of
the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, V, 1942, 133; repr. in Studies in Early Christian,
Mediaeval and Renaissance Art, New York, 1969, London, 1971, p. 11550.
Surveys, monographs
Barral I Altet, X. The Romanesque: Towns, Cathedrals and Monasteries. Cologne & New
York, 1998.
Bony, J. French Gothic Architecture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Berkeley, Los
Angeles & London, 1983.
Branner, R. Gothic Architecture. New York, 1961.
Braunfels, W. Monasteries of Western Europe: The Architecture of the Orders. London,
1993, c1972. Trans. of Abendländische Klosterbaukunst.
Bucher, F. “Medieval Architectural Design Methods, 800–1560.” Gesta, XI:2, 1972, 37–51.
Bugge, G. & C. Norberg-Schulz. Early Wooden Architecture in Norway. Oslo, 1969, rev. ed.
Calkins, R. C. Medieval Architecture in Western Europe, from A.D. 300 to 1500. New York &
Oxford, 1998.
Chueca Goitia, F. Historia de la arquitectura española: Edad antigua y edad media. Madrid,
Conant, K. J. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture, 8001200. Rev. ed. New Haven
CT, 1993. (The Pelican History of Art)
Dehio, G. G. & G. von Bezold. Die kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes. 2 v., ill. atlas in 5 v.
Stuttgart, 1887-1901.
DuColombier, P. Les chantiers des cathédrales: ouvriers, architects, sculpteurs. Paris, 1953,
Erlande-Brandenburg, A. The Cathedral: The Social and Architectural Dynamics of
Construction. Cambridge, UK & New York, 1994. (Cambridge Studies in the History of
Frankl, P. & P. Crossley. Gothic Architecture. Rev. ed. New Haven, CT, 2000. (The Pelican
History of Art)
Grodecki, L. L’Architecture ottonienne: au seuil de l'art roman. Paris, 1958. (Collection Henri
Focillon, 4)
Grodecki, L., A. Prache & R. Recht. Gothic Architecture. New York, 1987. Trans. of
L’Architecture gothique, Paris, 1976. (History of World Architecture)
Grodecki, L. & F. Mütherich. Die Zeit der Ottonen und Salier. Freiburg, 1973.
Harvey, J. H. The Mediaeval Architect. London, 1972.
Kubach, H. E. Romanesque Architecture. New York & London, 1988. Trans. of Architettura
romanica, Milan, 1972. 
Leask, H. G. Irish Churches and Monastic Buildings. 2. ed. 3 v. Dundalk, IR, 1977.
Online catalog of the author’s dissertation; International Center of Medieval Art-Index of
Christian Art Computer Awards 2001 Winner.
Mark, R. Experiments in Gothic Structure. Cambridge, MA, 1982.
Nickel, H. L. Medieval Architecture in Eastern Europe. New York & London, 1983. Trans. of
Östeuropäische Baukunst des Mittelalters, Cologne & Leipzig, 1981.
Panofsky, E. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism. Latrobe, PA, 1951; repr. 1985.
(Wimmer Lecture, 1948)
Platt, C. The Architecture of Medieval Britain: A Social History. Photographs A. Kersting.
New Haven, CT, 1990.
___. The Castle in Medieval England and Wales. London, 1982.
Prache, A. Cathedrals of Europe. Ithaca, NY, 2000.
Puig y Cadafalch, J. La géographie et les origins du premier art roman. Paris, 1935. Trans.
of La geografia i els orígens del primer art romànic. Barcelona, 1932.
Redding, C. & W. W. Clark. Medieval Architecture, Medieval Learning: Builders and Masters
in the Age of Romanesque and Gothic. New Haven, CT, 1992.
Saalman, H. Medieval Architecture in Europe, 6001200. New York, 1962, 1968.
Sauer, J. Symbolik des Kirchengebäudes und seiner Austattung in der Auffassung des
Mittelalters. 2. ed. Freiburg i. Br., 1924.
Sauerländer, W. Le siècle des cathédrales, 11401260. Paris, 1989. (L'Univers des formes,
36; Le Monde gothique). Also in German, Munich, 1990.
Schutz, B. & W. Muller. Deutsche Romanik: Die Kirchenbauten der Kaiser, Bischöfe und
Klöster. Freiburg i. Br., 1989.
Simson, O. von. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval
Concept of Order. New York, 1956, rev. 1962.
Viollet-le-Duc, E.-E. Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle.
10 v. Paris, 1854–68.
Webb, G. F. Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages. 2.ed. Harmondsworth, UK & Baltimore,
MD, 1965. (The Pelican History of Art)
White, J. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1250 to 1400. 3. ed. New Haven, CT, 1993. (The
Pelican History of Art)
Wilson, C. The Gothic Cathedral: The Architecture of the Great Church, 11301530. London,
Specialist websites, e.g.
Images of the cathedral & its sculptural program; one of the earliest digital projects
(Prof. Stephen Murray; Columbia University Media Center for Art History)
From Durham University.
A popular site, but with links & images.
Excellent site & images, easy navigation.
Many other castle websites (see, e.g., NetSERF:
A tutorial, from Rice University, 1996. Focuses on St. Sernin, Toulouse & Amiens
cathedral; comparative method, good plans.
Official website. Information (1173-present) & 6,400 photos taken in 1991-94 survey. 
Very good site on the topic, though much information only in Norwegian.
An example of a virtual architecture reconstruction. 
Medieval echoes & revivals in the US
J. M. Walker. The cultural & spiritual heritage of Los Angeles, CA. 
Prof. Paul Halsall’s Medieval History class project, Fordham University, 1996-98.
Impact of the Middle Ages in New York.
“Medieval stone, art, architecture … and the Middle Ages.”
Grove Dictionary of Art Online: “Garden, §VIII, 2: Western medieval,” by Christopher
Selected bibliography: 
Crisp, F. Mediaeval Gardens. 2 v. London, 1924.
Gardens of the Middle Ages. Exh. cat. M. Stokstad & J. Stannard. Lawrence, Spencer
Museum of Art, University of Kansas, 1983.
Harvey, J. Mediaeval Gardens. London, 1981.
Hennebo, D. Gärten des Mittelalters. Hamburg, 1962. 
MacDougall, E. B., ed. Medieval Gardens. Washington, DC, 1986. (Dumbarton Oaks
Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture, 9)
McLean, T. Medieval English Gardens. London, 1981.
Prest, J. The Garden of Eden. London, 1981.
Shoemaker, C. A., ed. Encyclopedia of Gardens: History and Design. 3 v. Independence,
KY, 2002.
Thacker, C. The History of Gardens. London, 1979, rev. 1985.
Studies in European Urban History (1100-1800). Turnhout, BE, Brepols, 2003-
Grove Dictionary of Art Online: “Urban planning, §II: Before c. 1450: The medieval town,”
by John Schofield. 
Selected bibliography:
Beresford, M. New Towns of the Middle Ages: Town Plantation in England, Wales and
Gascony. London, 1967; repr. Gloucester, 1988.
Boockmann, K. Die Stadt im späten Mittelalter. Munich, 1986.
Clarke, H. B. & A. Simms. The Comparative History of Urban Origins in Non-Roman
Europe: Ireland, Wales, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia, from the Ninth to the
Thirteenth Century. 2 v. Oxford, 1985.
Dickinson, R. E. The West European City. London, 1950. 
Girouard, M. Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History. New Haven, CT &
London, 1985.
Le Goff, J., ed. La Ville médiévale. Vol. 2 of Histoire de la France urbaine, ed. G. Duby.
Paris, 1980.
Lepage, J.-D. Castles and Fortified Cities of Medieval Europe: An Illustrated History.
Jefferson, NC, 2002.
Lobel, M.D., ed. Historic Towns: Maps and Plans of Towns and Cities in the British Isles,
with Historical Commentaries, from Earliest Times to 1800. 3 v. Baltimore, 1980;
London, 1975; Oxford, 1989.
Meckseper, C. Kleine Kunstgeschichte der deutschen Stadt im Mittelalter. Darmstadt,
Nicholas, D. The Growth of the Medieval City: From Late Antiquity to the Early
Fourteenth Century. London & New York, 1997. (A History of Urban Society of
___. The Later Medieval City, 1300-1500. London & New York, 1997. (A History of Urban
Society of Europe)
Pardo, V. F. Storia dell’urbanistica dal trecento al Quattrocento. Rome & Bari, 1982.
Platt, C. English Medieval Towns. London, 1976. 
Reynolds, S. An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns. Oxford, 1977.
Saalman, H. Medieval Cities. New York, 1968.
Specialist websites, e.g.
A very thorough scholarly database of the cathedral of Strasbourg.
An excellent reconstruction of early 13 c. Paris; kept up-to-date. (Marie-Christine
For websites of other medieval towns, see NetSERF:
Glass, D. F. Italian Romanesque Sculpture: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, 1983. (A
Reference Publication in Art History)
Lyman, T. W. & D. Smartt. French Romanesque Sculpture: An Annotated Bibliography.
Boston, MA, 1987. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
Dictionaries, Encyclopedias
Block, E. C. & F. Billiet, eds. Lexique des stalles médiévales / Lexicon of Medieval Choir
Stalls. Brepols, 2004. (Profane Arts of the Middle Ages)
Census of Medieval Sculpture in American Public Collections. 
An inventory, ed. by ICMA.
Corpus of Medieval Misericords. Ed. E. C. Block. 2003- Brepols.
5 vols. projected: vols.1-4 on misericords & related choir stall carvings in regions of
Europe; v.. 5 iconographic index.
Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in American Collections. 
An inventory, ed. by ICMA. Brepols.
Digital resources
By Harriet M. Sonne de Torrens & Miguel A. Torrens. Iconographic index of baptismal
fonts, early Christian-17th c.  Access will be available only through Iter in 2005:
The Courtauld Institute of Art, London.
By A. K. Henry & A. C. Hulbert. 
Surveys, monographs
Aubert, M. La Sculpture française au moyen-âge. Paris, 1947.  
Bauch, K. Das mittelalterliche Grabbild: Figürliche Grabmäler des 11. bis 15. Jahrhunderts in
Europa. Berlin, 1976.
Beenken, H. Romanische Skulptur in Deutschland: 11. und 12. Jahrhundert. Leipzig, 1924.
(Handbücher der Kunstgeschichte)
Blindheim, M. Painted Wooden Sculpture in Norway, c. 1100-1250. Oslo & Boston, 1998.
(Medieval Art in Norway)
Budde, R. Deutsche romanische Skulptur, 10501250. Munich, 1979.
Burg, M. Ottonische Plastik. Bonn & Leipzig, 1922. (Forschungen zur Kunstgeschichte
Westeuropas, 3)
Carli, E. La scultura lignea italiana dal XII al XVI secolo. Milan, 1960.
Crichton, G. H. Romanesque Sculpture in Italy. London, 1954.
Focillon, H. L’Art des sculpteurs romans: Recherches sur l'histoire des formes. 3. ed. Paris,
1995. (Quadrige, 38)
Gardner, A. Medieval Sculpture in France. Cambridge, UK & New York, 1931.  
Hearn, M. F. Romanesque Sculpture: The Revival of Monumental Stone Sculpture in the
Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Oxford & Ithaca, NY, 1981.
Liebmann, M. J. Die deutsche Plastik, 13501550. Leipzig, 1982.
Moskowitz, A. F. Italian Gothic Sculpture, c. 1250-c. 1400. Cambridge, UK & New York,
Müller, T. Sculpture in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and Spain, 1400 to 1500.
Harmondsworth, UK & Baltimore, 1966. (The Pelican History of Art)
Panofsky, E. Die deutsche Plastik des 11. bis 13.Jahrhunderts. 2 v. in 1. Munich, 1924; repr.
New York, 1969.  
Pope-Hennessy, J. W. Italian Gothic Sculpture. Vol. 1 of his An Introduction to Italian
Sculpture. London & New York, 1955; 2. ed. 1970.
Porter, A. K. Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads. 10 v. in 3. Boston, 1923; repr.
New York, 1985. 
___. Spanish Romanesque Sculpture. 2 v. in 1. Florence & Paris, 1928; New York, 1969.
Réau, L. L’Art réligieux du moyen âge: La Sculpture. Paris, 1946. (Collection "Merveilles de
Salvini, R. Medieval Sculpture. London & Greenwich, CT, 1970. (A History of Western
Sauerländer, W. Gothic Sculpture in France, 1140-1270. London, 1972. Trans. of Gotische
Skulptur in Frankreich, 1140–1270, Munich & Paris, 1970.
Schmidt, G. Gotische Bildwerke und ihre Meister. 2 v. Cologne & Vienna, 1992.
Stone, L. Sculpture in Britain: The Middle Ages. 2.ed. Harmondsworth, UK & Baltimore, MD,
1972. (The Pelican History of Art)
Thompson, F. H., ed. Studies in Medieval Sculpture. London, 1980. (Occasional paper, new
ser., 3, Society of Antiquaries of London)
Williamson, P. Gothic Sculpture, 1140-1300. New Haven, CT, 1995. (The Pelican History of
, G. Studies in Romanesque Sculpture. London, 1979.
Barnes, C. F. Villard de Honnecourt--the Artist and His Drawings: A Critical Bibliography.
Boston, MA, 1982. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
Brenni, V. J. Book Illustration and Decoration: A Guide to Research. Westport, CT, 1980.
(Art Reference Collection, 1)
Lane, B. G. Flemish Painting Outside Bruges: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, MA,
1986. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
Mundy, E. J. Painting in Bruges, 1470-1550: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, MA,
1985. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
Stubblebine, J. H. Dugento Painting: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston, MA, 1983. (A
Reference Publication in Art History)
Ars Nova: Studies in Late Medieval and Renaissance Northern Painting and Illumination.
Ed. M. Ainsworth, E. König. Brepols. 
Largely 15th century.
The Flemish Primitives / Les primitives flamands. Ed. Centre International de Recherche
“Primitifs Flamands,” Belgium. Antwerp & Brussels, 1951-; distributed by Brepols. 
Several series of monographs. Historical, iconographical, stylistic & technical studies
of early Netherlandish painting. 
Kristeller, P. O. Latin Manuscript Books Before 1600: A List of the Printed Catalogues
and Unpublished Inventories of Extant Collections. 4. rev. & enl. ed. S. Krämer.
Munich, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, 1993. 
Manuscripts in public collections in Europe, USA & Canada. See SULAIR for a
description of how to use Kristeller in conjunction with the microfilm indexes
Bertelli, C., ed. La pittura in Italia: L’Altomedioevo. Milan, 1994.
Bologna, F. Early Italian Painting: Romanesque and Early Medieval Art. Princeton, NJ,
Camón Aznar, J. Pintura medieval española. 5. ed. Madrid, 1988. (Summa artis, historia
general del arte, 22)
Cole, B. Sienese Painting: From its Origins to the 15th Century. New York, 1980.
Cuttler, C. D. Northern Painting from Pucelle to Bruegel: Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and
Sixteenth Centuries. New York, 1968. 
Dodwell, C. R. The Pictorial Arts of the West, 8001200. New Haven, CT, 1993. Rev. ed.
of Painting in Europe, 8001200, Harmondsworth, UK, 1971. (The Pelican History of
Dupont, J. & C. Gnudi. Gothic Painting. London, 1979. Trans. of La Peinture gothique,
Geneva, 1954. 
Freemantle, R. Florentine Gothic Painters from Giotto to Masaccio: A Guide to Painting in
and near Florence, 1300 to 1450. London, 1975.
Garrison, E. B. Italian Romanesque Panel Painting: An Illustrated Index. Florence, 1949;
London, 1998. 
CD-ROM with rev. bibliography & Iconclass.
___. Studies in the History of Medieval Italian Painting. 4v. Florence, 1953–62; London,
Selected studies in the history of art.
Grabar, A. & C. Nordenfalk. Romanesque Painting from the Eleventh to the Thirteenth
Century: Geneva & New York, 1958. (The Great Centuries of Painting)
Hills, P. The Light of Early Italian Painting. New Haven, CT, 1987. 
Jung, W. & A. Stange. Deutsche Malerei des Mittelalters. 3 v. in 1. Königstein im Taunus,
1967. (Die Blauen Bücher)
Lindblom, A. La Peinture gothique en Suède et en Norvège: Étude sur les relations entre
l'Europe occidentale et les pays scandinaves. Stockholm, 1916.
Marle, R. van. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 19 v. The Hague,
1923-38; repr. New York, 1970.
Matthiae, G., M. Andaloro & F. Gandolfo. Pittura romana del medioevo. 2 v. 2., rev. ed.
Rome, 1987-88.
Meiss, M. French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry. 3 sets. New York, 1967-74.  
___. Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death: The Arts, Religion, and
Society in the Mid-Fourteenth Century. Princeton, NJ, 1951; 4., rev. ed. 1978.
Offner, R. et al. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. New York, 1930- 
Vols. on 14 c. 
Panofsky, E. Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character. Cambridge, MA,
1953; rev. ed. New York, 1971.
Post, C. R.; H. E. Wethey, ed. A History of Spanish Painting. 14 v. in 20. Cambridge, MA,
Prache, A. & F. Avril. La Peinture monumentale en Europe: hors de l'Italie au XIIIe et au
XIVe siècle. Geneva, 1979. (Histoire universelle de la peinture)
Rickert, M. J. Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages. 2. ed. London & Baltimore, MD, 1965.
(The Pelican History of Art)
Schrade, H. Malerei des Mittelalters: Gestalt, Bestimmung, Macht, Schicksal. 2 v.
Cologne, 1958–63.
Smart, A. The Dawn of Italian Painting, c. 12501400. Oxford & Ithaca, NY, 1978.
Stange, A. Deutsche Malerei der Gotik. 9 v. Munich, 1934–61; repr. Nendeln,
Liechtenstein, 1969.
Sterling, C. La peinture médiévale à Paris, 1300-1500. 2 v. Paris, 1987-90.
___. Les peintres primitifs. Paris, 1949.
Stubblebine, J. H. Assisi and the Rise of Vernacular Art. New York, 1985. 
Thompson, D. V.The Materials of Medieval Painting. New Haven, CT, 1936; repr. as The
Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting. New York & London, 1956.
Winkler, F. Altdeutsche Tafelmalerei. Munich, 1944, c1941.
Mural painting
Borsook, E. The Mural Painters of Tuscany from Cimabue to Andrea del Sarto. London,
1960; 2., rev. ed. 1980.
Caiger-Smith, A. English Medieval Mural Paintings. Oxford, 1963.
Corpus der mittelalterlichen Wandmalereien Österreichs. Vienna, 1983- 2 v. published.
Demus, O. Romanesque Mural Painting. New York, 1970. Trans. of Romanische
Wandmalerei, Munich, 1968.
Deschamps, P. & M. Thibout. La Peinture murale en France: Le Haut Moyen Age et
l’époque romane. Paris, 1951. (Collection Ars et historia)
___. La Peinture murale en France au début de l’époque gothique, de Philippe-Auguste à
la fin du règne de Charles V, 1180–1380. Paris, 1963.
Dvoráková, V. et al. Gothic Mural Painting in Bohemia and Moravia, 13001378. London
& New York, 1964.  
Searchable image database (currently more than 5,000 images) of Danish medieval
church murals. Department of History, Copenhagen University.
“A developing catalogue.” CD-ROM & website. 
A friendly popular site.
By James Mills, freely accessible on Index of Christian Art. Romanesque to
Renaissance; text & images, also iconographic index. 
Tristram, E. W. English Medieval Wall Painting. Oxford, 1944-50.
Vols. on 12 & 13 cs. 
___. English Wall Painting of the Fourteenth Century. London, 1955.
Wettstein, J. La Fresque romane: Etudes comparatives. 2 v. Geneva & Paris, 1971-78.
(Bibliothèque de la Société française d'archéologie, 2, 9)
From Harvard University Art Museums, written by E. Saywell. 
Inventory-catalog of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, collection of approximately
12,000 drawings by European artists (14–19 cs.); free searchable database. (Prof.
Robert Randolf Coleman, University of Notre Dame, IN) 
Scanned from a facsimile ed., Paris: Catala Frères, 1927. (Prof. Ross Woodrow,
University of Newcastle, AU). Choice of search, browse & viewing options.
Angulo Iñíguez, D. & A. E. Pérez Sánchez, A Corpus of Spanish Drawings. Vol. 1,
London & Boston, 1975.
Backhouse, J. “An Illuminator’s Sketchbook.”  British Library Journal, I, 1974, 3–14.
Bucher, F. Architector: The Lodgebooks and Sketchbooks of Medieval Architects. Vol. 1,
New York, 1979.
Degenhart, B. & A. Schmitt. Corpus der italienischen Zeichnungen, 13001450. Pt. I: 4
v., Berlin, 1968; pt. II: 4 v., Berlin, 1982.
Drobná, Z. Gothic Drawing in Bohemia. Prague, 1956. 
Evans, M. Medieval Drawings. London, 1969.
Fossi Todorow, M. I disegni dei maestri: L’Italia dalle origini a Pisanello. Milan, 1970.  
Scheller, R. W. A Survey of Medieval Model Books. Haarlem, 1963, 1972; available on
Blum, A. Les Origines de la gravure en France. Paris & Brussels, 1927.
Briquet, C. M. Les Filigranes: Dictionnaire historique des marques de papier des leur
apparition vers 1282 jusqu'en 1600. 4 v. Paris, 1907, 1923. Facsimile with
supplementary material ed. A. Stevenson. Amsterdam, 1968. 
The First Century of Printmaking, 1400–1500. Exh. cat. E. Mongan & C. O. Schniewind.
Chicago, IL, Art Institute, 1941.
Griffiths, A. Prints and Printmaking: An Introduction to the History and Techniques.
London, 1980.
Hind, A. M. A History of Engraving & Etching from the 15th Century to the Year 1914. 3.
rev. ed. of A Short History of Engraving and Etching. London & Boston, 1923; repr.
New York, 1963. 
___. An Introduction to a History of Woodcut, with a Detailed Survey of Work Done in the
Fifteenth Century. 2 v. London & Boston, 1935; repr. London & New York, 1963. 
Prints, 1400–1800: A Loan Exhibition from Museums and Private Collections. Exh. cat.
ed. H. Joachim. Minneapolis, MN, Institute of Art; Cleveland, OH, Museum of Art;
Chicago, IL, Art Institute, 1956–57.
Wilder, F. How to Identify Old Prints. London, 1969.
Bartsch, A. von. The Illustrated Bartsch. Ed. W. L. Strauss et al. New York, 1979-
Hollstein, F. W. H. Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts, ca. 1450-
1700. Amsterdam, 1949-
___. German Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, ca. 1400-1700. Amsterdam, 1954- 
Lehrs, M. Geschichte und kritischer Katalog des deutschen, niederländischen und
französischen Kupferstichs im XV. Jahrhundert. 9 v. & 9 atlases. Vienna, 1908-34;
repr. Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1969. 
Passavant, J. D. Le peinre-graveur… 6 v. in 3. Leipzig, 1860-64; repr. New York, 1966;
Nieuwkoop, NL, 1970.
Schramm, E. Der Bilderschmuck der Frühdrucke. 23 v. Leipzig, 1920-43; repr. Stuttgart,
Schreiber, W. L. Handbuch der Holz- und Metallschnitte des XV. Jahrhunderts. Manuel
de l'amateur de la gravure sur bois et sur métal au XVe siècle. 5 v. Berlin, 1891-1910.
3., new ed. 11 v. Stuttgart & Nendeln, 1969-76. 
Avril, F. La Technique de l’enluminure d’après les textes médiévaux: Essai de
bibliographie. Paris, 1967.
Donati, L. Bibliografia della miniatura. 2 v. Florence, 1972. 
A comprehensive, classified bibliography; no annotations but indicates reviews.
Metzger, T. & M. Jewish Life in the Middle Ages: Iilluminated Hebrew Manuscripts of the
Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Centuries. New York, 1982.
Multiple–vol. catalogs of French public libraries, pub. Paris, 1920s-40s; some
available on microfiche.
Zotter, H. Bibliographie faksimilierter Handschriften. Graz, 1976. 2.ed. H. & H. Zotter,
Aeschlimann, E. & P. d’Ancona. Dictionnaire des miniaturistes du moyen âge et de la
renaissance dans les différentes contrées de l’Europe. 2. rev., enl. ed. Milan, 1949;
repr. Nendeln, Liechteinstein, 1969.
Bradley, J. W. A Dictionary of Miniaturists, Illuminators, Calligraphers, and Copyists, with
References to Their Works and Notices of Their Patrons, from the Establishment of
Christianity to the Eighteenth Century. 3 v. London, 1887-89; repr. New York, 1968.
Fitzgerald, W. Ocelli nominum: Names and Shelf Marks of the Famous/Familiar
Manuscripts. Toronto, 1992. (Subsidia mediaevalia, 19)
Manuscripta: A Journal for Manuscript Research
1977-, Vatican Film Library, St. Louis University; Brepols, semi-annual
Paleography, codicology, illumination, diplomatics, book production, library history,
reading, literacy, textual criticism, etc. 
1988-, Florence, Alinari, semi-annual   
1946-, Centre d’Étude des Manuscrits, Brussels, semi-annual
Scriptorium On Line includes index to 140,000 class marks of the manuscripts &
1,056 bibliographic references published in the journal.
Buchkunst im Wandel der Zeiten. Graz, Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1975- 
Mazal, O. Buchkunst der Romanik, & Buchkunst der Gotik published.
Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts from the Low Countries. Leuven, 1937–
An Index of Images in English Manuscripts from Chaucer to Henry VIII, c.1380-c.1509.
London, Harvey Miller, 2000-
Manuscripts in Miniature. London, Harvey Miller, 1995-
Storia della miniatura, Studi e documenti. Florence, Olschki, 1962-
Studies in Manuscript Illumination. Princeton, NJ, Princeton UP, 1947-
A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in France. Ed. F. Avril & J. J. G. Alexander. London,
Harvey Miller, 1996- 
A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles. Ed. J. J. G. Alexander. London,
Harvey Miller, 1975–
Thompson, D. V. & G. H. Hamilton, eds. An Anonymous Fourteenth-Century Treatise,
‘De arte illuminandi’: The Technique of Manuscript Illumination. New Haven, CT,
Facsimile editions published by, e.g.
Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria (Codices selecti series, 1960s-80s)
Braziller, New York (The Library of Illuminated Manuscripts series, 1969-)
Gale Research Co., Detroit, MI (Facsimile Editions of Unique Illuminated Manuscripts
series, ca. 1970s-80s)
Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, DE
London, Facsimile Editions
London, Harvey Miller
Luzern, Faksimile Verlag 
Valencia, Patrimonio Ediciones
Zurich, Belser Verlag (Belser Facsimile Editions of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
Surveys, monographs
Alexander, J. J. G. The Decorated Letter. London, 1978.
___. Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work. New Haven, CT & London, 1992. 
Ancona, P. d’ & E. Aeschlimann. The Art of Illumination. London, 1969.
Avril, F. L’enluminure à l’époque gothique: 1200-1420. Paris, 1995.
___. Manuscript Painting at the Court of France: The Fourteenth Century (13101380).
New York, 1978.
Backhouse, J. The Illuminated Manuscript. Oxford, 1979.
Boeckler, A. Deutsche Buchmalerei. 2 v. in 1. Königstein im Taunus, 1959.
Brown, M.P. Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts: A Guide to Technical Terms.
Malibu, CA, c1994.
Cahn, W. Romanesque Bible Illumination. Ithaca, NY, 1982.
Calkins, R. G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. London & New York, 1983.
Camille, M. Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. Cambridge, MA, 1992.
(Essays in Art and Culture)
De Hamel, C. A History of Illuminated Manuscripts. London, 1986; rev. ed. 1994;
repr.1995, 1997. 
Delaissé, M. J. A. A Century of Dutch Manuscript Illumination. Berkeley & Los Angeles,
Diringer, D. The Illuminated Book: Its History and Production. Cambridge, UK, 1958; rev.
ed. London, 1967.
The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. Exh. cat. J. H. Marrow et al. Utrecht,
Museum Catharijneconvent; New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, 1989–90.
Gutmann, J. Hebrew Manuscript Painting. New York, 1978.
Herbert, J. A. Illuminated Manuscripts. London, 1911; repr. Bath, 1972.
Hughes, A. Medieval Manuscripts for Mass and Office: A Guide to Their Organization and
Terminology. Toronto & Buffalo, 1995.
Jakobi-Mirwald, C. Buchmalerei: Ihre Terminologie in der Kunstgeschichte. 2., rev. ed.
Berlin, 1997.
Illustrated dictionary of terms and visual motifs. Includes references to manuscripts &
extensive bibliography.
Leroquais, V. Les bréviaires manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France. 5 v. &
atlas. Paris, 1934.
___. Les pontificaux manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France. 3 v. & portfolio.
Paris, 1937.
___. Les psautiers manuscrits latins des bibliothèques publiques de France. 2 v. &
portfolio. Paris, 1940-41.
___. Les sacramentaires et les missels, manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de
France. 3 v. & atlas. Paris, 1924.
Mayr-Harting, H. Ottonian Book Illumination: An Historical Study. 2 v. London & New
York, 1991.
Pächt, O. Book Illumination in the Middle Ages: An Introduction. Oxford, 1986, repr.1994.
Porcher, J. Medieval French Miniatures. New York, 1960, 1978. Trans. of L’Enluminure
française, Paris, 1959.
Randall, L. M. C. Images in the Margins of Gothic Manuscripts. Berkeley, 1966.
(California Studies in the History of Arts, 4)
Robb, D. M. The Art of the Illuminated Manuscript. London, 1973.
Smeyers, M. Flemish Miniatures from the 8th to the mid-16th century: The Medieval World
on Parchment. Trans. of Vlaamse miniaturen van de 8ste tot het midden van de 16de
eeuw. Turnhout & Leuven, BE, c1999.
Thompson, J. W. The Medieval Library. New York, 1957.
Van Moé, E. A. Illuminated Initials in Medieval Manuscripts. London, 1950. 
Wieck, R. S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. London &
Baltimore, MD, 1988.
Williams, J. Early Spanish Manuscript Illumination. New York & London, 1977.
___. The Illustrated Beatus: A Corpus of the Illustrations of the Commentary on the
Apocalypse. London & Langhorne, PA, c1994-
5 v. published ( Introduction – The Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries).
Digital collections
Prof. Martina Pippal. Searchable by manuscript identification, iconography, text.
La Librairie des Ducs de Bourgogne. 
270 extant manuscripts from the original ducal collection; more than 7,000 full-
color images, codicological & iconographical descriptions, bibliographies, analytical
index. Bibliothèque Royale Albert I, Brussels; Brepols. Print & CD-ROM, 2000- ;
Czech Republic
44 documents, 11-17 cs., including medieval manuscripts. Digitized by AiP
Beroun s.r.o. 1998-2002 as part of the project Memoriae Mundi Series Bohemica
(UNESCO Memory of the World / Pam
et sveta
Approximately 30 medieval manuscripts, including 2 of Speculum humanae
Bibliothèque Nationale
1,000 images of illuminations from manuscripts of the period, accessible by
introductory text, themes & manuscripts.
Very good searchable database of “more than 14,000 images from over
12,000 manuscripts.” BN & CNRS, France. 
Iconographic database of the Department of Manuscripts, covering currently
more than 15,000 manuscripts.
Other French databases of illuminated manuscripts
“Le Moyen âge en lumière: Collection de miniatures médiévales extraites des
manuscrits conservés par les bibliothèques municipales de France.” By
themes; fully searchable as yet only in French version; updated daily.
A developing database of medieval illuminated manuscripts in the libraries of
French higher-education institutions. At present, contains “nearly 1,700
manuscripts & 33,000 images” in the Mazarine & Sainte-Geneviève libraries,
Paris. Allows iconographic searching.
Searchable database, 12,000 images from 457 manuscripts.
Searchable database for manuscripts devised by Cologne University.
Excellent resource for manuscripts in German-speaking countries. Complete digital
reproduction of 89 manuscripts from important public collections in Germany (in
Berlin, Darmstadt, Fulda, Heidelberg, Margburg); thousands of manuscript catalog
entries; full-text searchable database of 65,000 manuscripts (2,500 now
searchable iconographically); good links.
From Medieval Studies on the Internet: Numerous links, also to
resources outside Germany.
At the Jewish National & University Library, Jerusalem. Aims to create a worldwide
registry of ketubbot. A major resource for research in Jewish art, history & law.
The Netherlands
A scholarly database of illuminated medieval manuscripts from the 2 Dutch
collections. Ca. 10,000 miniatures can be browsed by subject (using Iconclass) &
searched in detail.
British Library
Excellent manuscript resources, images.
Catalogs include:
A growing database (currently ca. 200 manuscripts, to include ultimately ca.
9,500). Descriptions & images. 
Currently no images.
Oxford University
The home page for pre-c. 1500 western manuscripts, which form one part of
the Department of Special Collections & Western Manuscripts at the Bodleian
Library; information & ca. 1,000 images scanned from Bodleian filmstrips &
Digital facsimiles of complete manuscripts, including some of the Library's
greatest treasures, scanned directly from the originals.
Visual union catalog of medieval & Renaissance manuscripts from Columbia
University, University of California at Berkeley & several other collections, includes
ca. 1,000 images of archival materials. A Mellon Foundation project, 2001.
Archive of digital images of medieval manuscripts.
Links to other Books of Hours websites.
Private manuscript collections, e.g.
Checklist of 625 manuscripts, with descriptions & images. The controversial collection,
located mainly in Oslo & London, “comprises most types of manuscripts from the
whole world spanning over 5000 years. It is the largest private manuscript collection
formed in the 20th century. The whole collection … comprises 13,010 manuscript
items, including 2,172 volumes.” Includes many medieval manuscripts (“3,870 are
from the medieval period”), all acquired within the last 2 decades. Easy access: much
information, well organized & illustrated. Good paleography section, special
collections. Collection being published in series “Manuscripts in The Schøyen
Collection,” by University of Oslo. Website by Norwegian National Library.
51 leaves from medieval manuscripts (Western Europe, 12-16 cs.) “selected to
illustrate the art of the manuscript during the period of its greatest development and
influence. … from books written in various European scriptoria by Benedictine,
Franciscan, Carthusian, Dominican, and other orders of monks.”
Online versions of exhibitions, e.g.
Washington, DC, Library of Congress, 1995.
Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2001. A collaborative project of the Philadelphia Museum
of Art & the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries.
Salt Lake City, UT, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 1997-98. 
1997/2001. Includes medieval manuscripts.
Individual manuscripts online, e.g.
British Library digitization project 
Requires a recent version of (free) Shockwave software. Includes Sherborne Missal
(the most lavishly decorated English medieval service-book to survive; made for the
Benedictine Abbey of St. Mary's in Sherborne, Dorset, beg. 15 c.; a masterpiece of
International Gothic style; also available on CD-ROM); also Luttrell Psalter (c. 1325 &
1335, the last stage of the highly accomplished East Anglian School of manuscript
illumination; rich illustration of everyday life in the 14 c.), the Golden Haggadah (c.
1320, from Spain; full-page miniatures in Northern French Gothic style); Lindisfarne
Aberdeen University Library MS 24 (England c. 1200). Complete digitization of
manuscript considered one of the best examples of its type. 
From Aberdeen University also: 
WebMuseum, Paris (Nicolas Pioch) One of the earliest such sites; excellent images;
Incunabula, e.g.
Complete digital version of the Göttingen GB etc. A scholarly site; splendid images.
Student project by Tamara Manning, University of Ilinois at Chicago, 2001.
Brady, D. A. & W. Serban. Stained Glass: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit, Gale,
1980. (Art and Architecture Information Guide Series, 10; Gale Information Guide
Caviness, M. H. & E. R. Staudinger. Stained Glass Before 1540: An Annotated
Bibliography. Boston, MA, 1983. (A Reference Publication in Art History)
Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi. 1949-
An ongoing international project, aims at compiling a complete inventory of surviving
medieval stained-glass panels according to their present location in Europe &
America. Treats history, style, iconography; catalogs & bibliographies.
Digital collections
Medieval–20 c. 
Prof. Pippin (Perette Elizabeth) Michelli. Includes a browser for stained glass (see
also above, Images section). 
Surveys, monographs
Brisac, C., ed. A Thousand Years of Stained Glass. Edison, NJ, 1986, 2002. Trans. of Le
Vitrail, Paris, Tokyo & Milan, 1985.
Crew, S. Stained Glass in England, c. 1180c. 1540. London, 1987.
Grodecki, L. & C. Brisac. Gothic Stained Glass, 1200-1300. London & Ithaca, NY, 1985.
Trans. of Le Vitrail gothique au XIIIe siècle, Fribourg, 1984.
Grodecki, L., C. Brisac & C. Lautier. Le Vitrail romain. Fribourg, 1977, 1983.
Kemp, W. The Narratives of Gothic Stained Glass. New York, 1997. Trans. of Sermo
corporeus, Munich, 1987.
Marks, R. Stained Glass in England during the Middle Ages. London, 1993. 
Newton. R. & S. Davison. Conservation of Glass. London, 1989.  
Raguin, V. C. Stained Glass: From Its Origins to the Present. New York, 2003. 
___. Stained Glass in Thirteenth-century Burgundy. Princeton, 1982. 
Westlake, N. H. J. A History of Design in Painted Glass.. 4 v. London, 1881–94.
Discussion group
To join: send the message “sub H-Stained-Glass firstname lastname, institution” to
Demus, O. The Mosaics of San Marco in Venice. 2 v. in 4. Chicago, 1984. 
___. The Mosaics of Norman Sicily. New York, 1949, 1988.
DiFederico, F. R. The Mosaics of St. Peter’s: Decorating the New Basilica. London &
University Park, PA, 1983.
Harding, C. “The Production of Medieval Mosaics.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 1989.
Kitzinger, E.The Mosaics of Monreale. Palermo, 1960.
Matthiae, G. Mosaici medioevali delle chiese di Roma. 2 v. Rome, 1967.
Roncuzzi Fiorentin, I. Il mosaico: Materiali e tecniche dalle origini a oggi . Ravenna, 1984. 
Blair, J. & N. Ramsay, eds. English Medieval Industries, Craftsmen, Techniques, Products.
London, 1991.
Braun, J. Das christliche Altargerät in seinem Sein und in seiner Entwicklung. Munich, 1932;
repr. Hildesheim & New York, 1973.
Gaborit-Chopin, D. & E. Taburet. Objets d’art du Moyen Age. Paris, 1981. (Notices d'histoire
de l'art, 4)
Ornamenta Ecclesiae: Kunst und Künstler der Romanik. Exh. cat. ed. A. Legner. 3 v.
Schnütgen-Museums, Cologne, 1985.
Osborne, H., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Decorative Arts. Oxford, 1975; repr. with
corrs. 1985.
Schiaparelli, A. La casa fiorentina e i suoi arredi nei secoli XIV e XV. 2 v. Florence, 1908;
repr. 1983. 
Surveys, monographs
Bordeaux, J. H. R. Serrurerie du moyen-âge: Les Ferrures de portes. Oxford & Paris,
Braun, J. Meisterwerke der deutschen Goldschmiedekunst der vorgotischen Zeit. 2 v. in
1. New York, 1979, 1922.
Bronzegeräte des Mittelalters. Berlin, 1935 (Denkmäler deutscher Kunst)
Coche De La Fert
é, E. Bijoux du haut moyen-âge. Lausanne, 1961. (Orbis pictus, 34)
Collon-Gevaert, S. Histoire des arts du métal en Belgique. 2 v. Brussels, 1951.  
Collon-Gevaert, S., J. Lejeune & J. Stiennon. A Treasury of Romanesque Art: Metalwork,
Illuminations and Sculpture from the Valley of the Meuse. New York & London, 1972.
Trans. of L’Art roman dans la valleé de la Meuse aux XIe, XIIe et XIIIe siècles.
Davillier, J. C. Recherches sur l’orfèvrerie en Espagne au Moyen Age et la Renaissance:
Documents inédits tirés des archives espagnoles. Paris, 1879.
Falke, O. von & H. Frauberger: Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten des Mittelalters. Frankfurt am
Main, 1904.
Ffoulkes, C. J. Decorative Ironwork from the Eleventh to the Eighteenth Century. London,
Fritz, J. F. Goldschmiedekunst der Gotik in Mitteleuropa. Munich, 1982.
Geddes, J. Medieval Decorative Ironwork in England. London, 1999.
Grimme, E. G. Goldschmiedekunst im Mittelalter: Form und Bedeutung des Reliquiars
von 800 bis 1500. Cologne, 1972. (DuMont Dokumente)
Hamann, R., ed. Die frühmittelalterlichen Bronzetüren. Marburg a. L., 1926-. 4 v.
Hefner-Alteneck, J. H. von. Decorative Ironwork of the Middle Ages and the
Renaissance. Mineola, NY, 1996. Trans. of Eisenwerke, oder Ornamentik der
Schmiedekunst des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, 1870.
Heuser, H.-J. Oberrheinische Goldschmiedekunst im Hochmittelalter. Berlin, 1974. 
Kohlhausen, H. Nürnberger Goldschmiedekunst des Mittealters und der Dürerzeit, 1240
bis 1540. Berlin, 1968.
Lasko, P. Studies on Metalwork, Ivories and Stone. London, 1994. 
15 papers.  
Lightbown, R. W. Secular Goldsmiths’  Work in Medieval France: A History. London,
1978. (Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London,
Lipinsky, A. Oro, argento, gemme e smalti: Technologia delle arti dalle origini alla fine del
medioevo, 3000 a.C.-1500 d.C. Florence, 1975. (Arte e archeologia, 8)
History, bibliography & 170 images of brasses & incised slabs, mostly medieval.
Perry, J. T. Dinanderie: A History and Description of Mediaeval Art Work in Copper,
Brass and Bronze. New York & London, 1910.
Specialist websites, e.g.
Raymond, E. & M. Friddle. Signs of Plenty: The Altar of Verdun.
“An essay in pedagogy.”
Cust, A. M. E. The Ivory Workers of the Middle Ages. New York, 1973, 1902. (Orig. ed. in
series Handbooks of the Great Craftsmen)
Cutler, A. The Craft of Ivory: Sources, Techniques, and Uses in the Mediterranean World,
A.D. 200–1400. Washington, DC, 1985.
Gaborit-Chopin, D. Ivoires du 14ème et du 15ème siècle. Paris, 1998.
___. Ivoires du moyen âge occidental. Fribourg, 1978. 
___. Ivoires médiévaux: Ve-XVe siècle. Paris, 2003.  
Goldschmidt, A., P. G. Hübner & O. Homburger. Die Elfenbeinskulpturen. 4 v. Berlin,
1914-26. (Denkmäler der deutschen Kunst) 
Vol. 3 repr. as Die Elfenbeinskulpturen aus der romanischen Zeit, XI.-XIII.
Jahrhundert, 2 v., Berlin, 1975.
Images in Ivory: Precious Objects of the Gothic Age. Exh. cat. ed. P. Barnet. Detroit
Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI & Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, MD, 1997. Princeton, NJ,
Koechlin, R. Les ivoires gothiques français. 4 v. Paris, 1924; repr. 1968.
Williamson, P. An Introduction to Medieval Ivory Carvings. London & Owings Mills, MD,
Medieval Ceramics
1977-, Medieval Pottery Research Group, UK, annual
Surveys, monographs
La Ceramica medievale nel Mediterraneo Occidentale: Congresso internazionale …
Siena & Faenza, 1984. Florence, 1986.
La Ceramique médiévale en méditerranée occidentale, Xe-XVe siècles. Paris, 1980.
(Colloques internationaux du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 584)
Coloquio Internacional de Cerámica Medieval en el Mediterráneo Occidental … Toledo,
1981. Ed. J. Zozava. Madrid, 1986. 
Cora, G. Storia della maiolica di Firenze e del contado: Secoli XIV e XV. 2 v. Florence,
Davey, P. & R. Hodges. Ceramics and Trade: The Production and Distribution of Later
Medieval Pottery in North-West Europe. Sheffield, UK, 1983.
"Papers derived from the proceedings of the Medieval Pottery Research Group's
annual conference at Hull, 1980.”
Gerrard, C. M., A. Gutiérrez & A. G. Vince. Spanish Medieval Ceramics in Spain and the
British Isles / Cerámica medieval española en España y las Islas Británicas. Oxford,
González Martí, M. Cerámica del Levante español, siglos medievales. 3 v. Barcelona,
Lemmen, H. van. Medieval Tiles. Princes Risborough, UK, 2000. 
McCarthy, M. R. & C. M. Brooks. Medieval Pottery in Britain, AD 9001600. Leicester,
Medieval Ceramics: VI to XIII Centuries. Exh. cat. J. D. Frierman. Frederick S. Wight Art
Gallery, UCLA, 1975.
Minghetti, A. Ceramisti. Milan, 1939; 2.ed. Ferrara, 1992. 
Biographical dictionary of ceramic makers, 11-20 cs.
Savage, G. An Illustrated Dictionary of Ceramics. New York & London, 1985, 2000.
Duncan, G. S. Bibliography of Glass (from the earliest records to 1940). London, 1960.
Newman, H. An Illustrated Dictionary of Glass: 2,442 entries, including definitions of
wares, materials, processes, forms, and decorative styles, and entries on principal
glassmakers, decorators, and designers from antiquity to the present. New York,
1977, 1987.
Rademacher, F. Die deutschen Gläser des Mittelalters. Berlin, 1933, 1963.
Bibliography & hands-on projects.
Boccador, J. Le Mobilier français du Moyen Âge à la Renaissance. St. Just en Chausée,
F, 1987.
Cescinsky, H. & E. R. Gribble. Early English Furniture & Woodwork... 2 v. London & New
York, 1922.  
Eames, P. Furniture in England, France and the Netherlands from the Twelfth to the
Fifteenth Century. London, 1977.
Heyne, M. Das deutsche Wohnungswesen von den ältesten Zeiten bis zum 16.
Jahrhundert. Leipzig, 1899; repr. Meerbusch b. Düsseldorf, 1985. Orig. issued as vol.
1 of the author's Fünf Bücher deutscher Hausaltertümer von den ältesten
geschichtlichen Zeiten bis zum 16. Jahrhundert. (Kulturgeschichte)
Jervis, S. Printed Furniture Designs Before 1650. Leeds, UK, 1974. 
Mariacher, G. Ambienti italiani del Trecento e Quattrocento. Milan, 1963. 
Mercer, E. Furniture, 700-1700. London, 1969. 
Burnham, D. Warp and Weft: A Dictionary of Textile Terms. New York, 1981. 
Lubell, C., ed. Textile Collections of the World. 3 v. New York, 1976-77. 
Guides to textile collections & compendia of source materials. 
Pylkkänen, R. The Use and Traditions of Medieval Rugs and Coverlets in Finland.
Helsinki, 1974.  
Raiment for the Lord’s Service: A Thousand Years of Western Vestments. Exh. cat. C. C.
Mayer-Thurman. Art Institute, Chicago, 1975. 
Wilckens, L. von. Die Textilen-Künste von der Spätantike bis um 1500. Munich, 1991.
Studies in Western Tapestry. Turnhout, BE, Brepols, 2003-
Cavallo, A. S. Medieval Tapestries in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993.
Demotte, G.-J. & S. Reinach. La tapisserie gothique. 4 v. Paris, 1922–26.
Göbel, H. Wandteppiche. 3 v. in 6. Leipzig, 1923-24. Vol. 1 pub. as Tapestries in the
Lowlands, New York, 1972.
Guiffrey, J. J., E. Müntz & A. Pinchart. Histoire générale de la tapisserie. 3 v. Paris,
Kurth, B. Die deutschen Bildteppiche des Mittelalters. 3 v. Vienna, 1926.
Lestocquoy, J. Deux siècles de l'histoire de la tapisserie, 1300-1500: Paris, Arras, Lille,
Tournai, Bruxelles. Arras, 1978. (Mémoires de la Commission départementale des
monuments historiques du Pas-de-Calais, 19)
Masterpieces of Tapestry from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Exh. cat. G.
Souchal. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1974. Trans. of Chefs-d'œuvre de la
tapisserie du XIVe au XVIe siècle. exh. cat., Grand Palais, Paris, 1973-74. 
Tapisseries bruxelloises de la pré-Renaissance . Exh. cat. Musées royaux d'art et
d'historie, Brussels, 1976. 
Specialist digital resources, e.g.
Foys, M. K. et al. The Bayeux Tapestry. CD-ROM. Leicester, UK, Scholarly Digital
Editions, 2003. 
Scholarly edition, with critical commentary, bibliographic citations, glossary. On-
line version is less complete than CD-ROM.
Embroidery & Needlework
Brel-Bordaz, O. Broderies d’ornements liturgiques, XIIIe-XIVe siècles. Paris, 1982.
Christie, G. English Medieval Embroidery: A Brief Survey of English Embroidery Dating
from the Beginning of the Tenth Century until the End of the Fourteenth. Oxford, 1938.
Kroos, R. Niedersächsiche Bildstickereien des Mittelalters. Berlin, 1970.
Opus Anglicanum: English Medieval Embroidery. Exh. cat. ed. D. King. Victoria & Albert
Museum, London, 1963.  
Santangelo, A. A Treasury of Great Italian Textiles. New York, 1964. Trans. of Tessuti
d’arte italiani dal XII al XVIII secolo, Milan, 1959.
Schuette, M. Gestickte Bildteppiche und Decken des Mittelalters. 2 v. Leipzig, 1927-30.
Waffen- und Kostümkunde: Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für historische Waffen- und
1959-, Munich, semi-annual
Bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, indexes
Anthony, P. & J. Arnold, J. Costume: A General Bibliography. London, 1966; 2., rev. &
enl. ed. 1977. (Costume Society Bibliography, 1)
Hiler, H. & M., comp. Bibliography of Costume: A Dictionary Catalog of about Eight
Thousand Books and Periodicals. New York, 1939; repr. 1967; facsim. ed. 1994.
Huenefeld, I. International Directory of Historical Clothing. Metuchen, NJ, 1967.
Monro, I. S. & D. E. Cook. Costume Index: A Subject Index to Plates and to Illustrated
Texts. New York, 1937; Supplement 1957; microfilm 1971.
Surveys, monographs
Bailie, K. de. Medieval Costume. Albuquerque, NM, 1988, 1978.
Bock, F. Geschichte der liturgischen Gewänder des Mittelalters.  3 v. in 2. Bonn, 1859-
71; repr. Graz, 1970. 
Brooke, I. English Costume from the Early Middle Ages through the Sixteenth Century.
Mineola, NY, 2000. Orig.  pub. as English Costume of the Early Middle Ages, London,
1936, & as parts of English Costume from the Fourteenth through the Nineteenth
Century, New York, 1937. 
Burns, E. J. Medieval Fabrications: Dress, Textiles, Clothwork, and Other Cultural
Imaginings. New York, 2004. (The New Middle Ages)
Carus-Wilson, E. M., N. B. Harte & K. G. Ponting. Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe:
Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson. London, 1983. (Pasold Studies in
Textile History, 2)
Costumes of Religious Orders of the Middle Ages. West Orange, NJ, 1988. Facsim. ed.
of Histoire des ordres monastiques, réligieux et militaires et des congregations
seculiers, Paris, 1718.
Cunnington, C. W. & P. E. Handbook of English Mediaeval Costume. London, 1952; 2.,
corr. ed. 1969, 1973.
Elliott, L. Clothing in the Middle Ages. New York & St. Catharines, Ont., 2004. (The
Medieval World)
Houston, M. G. Medieval Costume in England and France: The 13th, 14th and 15th
Centuries. London, 1939; repr. 1950. (A Technical History of Costume, 3)
Koslin, D. G. & J. E. Snyder, eds. Encountering Medieval Textiles and Dress: Objects,
Texts, Images. New York, 2002. (The New Middle Ages)
Nenninger, J. E. & A. Chevalier. Medieval Dress. Basel, CH, 1947. 
Norris, H. Church Vestments: Their Origin & Development. New York, 1950. 
___. Medieval Costume and Fashion. Mineola, NY, 1999. Orig. pub. as Costume &
Fashion, London, 1924.
Piponnier, F. & P. Mane. Dress in the Middle Ages. New Haven, CT, 2000. Trans. of Se
vêtir au Moyen Age, Paris, 1995.
Shaw, H. & W. P. Yenne. Dress and Decoration of the Middle Ages. Cobb, CA, 1998. 
Adapted from Shaw, London, 1858; orig. Dresses and Decorations of the Middle
Ages, London, 1843.
Textiles in Daily Life in the Middle Ages. Exh. cat. R. Martin Nagy. Cleveland Museum of
Art, OH, 1985.
Digital resources
Includes numerous medieval costume resources.
Prof. Tara Maginnis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Large Medieval Europe section,
with a variety of links, many images scanned from works of art.
A manual, from Central European University, Budapest, Hungary. Focus on the social
role. Useful, with bibliography, glossary.
Society for Creative Anachronism. 2000- Serial & Internet resource.
Good information, images & links for medieval costume.
Corpus des émaux méridionaux. Paris, 1990
Campbell, M. An Introduction to Medieval Enamels. London, 1983.
Gauthier, M.-M. Emaux du moyen âge occidental. 2.ed. Fribourg, 1972. 
Gauthier, M.-M. & G. François. Emaux méridionaux: Catalogue international de l'œuvre
de Limoges. Paris, 1987-
V. 1, L'époque romane.
Anderson, M. D. Drama and Imagery in English Medieval Churches. Cambridge, UK, 1964.
Cohen, G. Histoire de la mise en scène dans le théâtre réligieux français du moyen âge.
Paris, 1926; repr. 1951.
Davidson, C. Drama and Art: An Introduction to the Use of Evidence from the Visual Arts for
the Study of Early Drama. Kalamazoo, MI, 1977.
Izenour, G. C. et al. Theater Design. New York, 1977; 2. ed. New Haven, CT, 1996.
Leacroft, R. & H. Theatre and Playhouse: An Illustrated Survey of Theatre Building from
Ancient Greece to the Present Day. New York & London, 1984.
Nagler, A.M. The Medieval Religious Stage: Shapes and Phantoms. New Haven, CT, 1976.
Neuss, P., ed. Aspects of Early English Drama. Cambridge, UK & Totowa, NJ, 1983.  
Tydeman, W. The Theatre in the Middle Ages: Western European Stage Conditions, c. 800
1576. Cambridge, UK & New York, 1978.
Wickham, G. Early English Stages, 13001660, 4 v. in 5. London & New York, 1981, 2002.
Wiley, W. L. The Early Public Theatre in France. Cambridge, MA, 1960; Westport, CT, 1972. 
Young, K. The Drama of the Medieval Church. 2 v. Oxford, 1933, 1967. 
Beinart, H. Atlas of Medieval Jewish History. Trans. New York, c1992.
The Cassell Atlas of the Medieval World: A.D. 600-1492. Ed. J. Haywood, A. Jotischky, S.
McGlynn. London, 1998.
Haywood, J. The Medieval World [AD 1 to 1492]. New York, 1999. (World Atlas of the Past,
Konstam, A. Atlas of Medieval Europe. New York, c2000. 
Mackay, A. & D. Ditchburn. Atlas of Medieval Europe. London & New York, 1997; 4. repr.
Matthew, D. Atlas of Medieval Europe. New York, c1983. 
McEvedy, C. The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. London & New York, 1992. Rev.
ed. of Penguin Atlas of Medieval History, Harmondsworth, UK, 1961. 
McKitterick, R. The Times Medieval World. London, 2003. (Mapping History)
Includes bibliography & index.
Steer, J. & A. White. Atlas of Western Art History: Artists, Sites, and Movements from
Ancient Greece to the Modern Age. New York, 1994.
Ancient-Renaissance maps, in chronological sections. Index, images, bibliography.
1-2000 CE. Maps drawn by the Swiss Christos Nüssli (Swiss); available in French &
English, for download or on CD-ROM.
At University of Texas at Austin. A large collection, includes historical maps of Europe,
some of interest to medievalists. 
Schematic political maps of medieval Europe, mainly from academic sites (Calgary, Kansas,
Dr. Ronnie Ellenblum. Facsimiles of historic maps, searchable A-Z, & by year &
Chronological, geographical & thematic exploration of the history of art, as illustrated
especially by the Museum’s collection. Includes maps, overviews, additional content on
special topics (“European and Byzantine Art in the Middle Ages” section), works of art,
David R. Miller. World history timelines. Large & detailed, by year, with built-in historical
resources, terms hyperlinked to Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia, & off-site links. 
University of Kansas. 751 BCE - 1515 CE.
Britain from the time of Alfred the Great, up to the start of the Tudor Age. Also maps
showing the locations of castles, abbeys & cathedrals in England, Scotland & Wales;
rulers; some 3-D reconstructions. Searchable.
Storey, R. L. Chronology of the Medieval World, 800 to 1491. London, 1973; New York,
Peter Binkley, University of Toronto. Julian calendar, for 500-1582. The program
produces tables of months, years & Sundays, including fixed & movable feasts, & offers a
template for customizing these tables according to the user’s specific needs. 
The ORB. Hypertext guide to the feast days of Christian saints venerated in the Middle
Ages & the Renaissance, based on several dictionaries of saints. Organized by date
rather than by name of the saint. 
University of Notre Dame, IN.
E-dictionary of medieval Latin abbreviations. Over 70,000 entries (“nearly five times as
many as in the printed dictionaries by Walther, Chassant, De la Braña, Cappelli & Pelzer
combined”). Employs fuzzy logic. License Dr. Olaf Pluta, Radboud University, Nijmegen,
Dictionaries, glossaries
“of legal, feudal, chivalric, monastic, military and architectural terms”
Broughton, B. B. Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry. 2 v. Westport, CT & New
York, 1986-88.
By Michael Adams.
University of Tartu, Estonia.
Niermeyer, Jan Frederik. Mediae Latinitatis lexicon minus. Leiden, 1976, 1993.
Franklyn, J. & J. Tanner. An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Heraldry. Oxford & New York,
By François R. Velde. Full text, images, links. Includes Illustrated Glossary & Atlas (of
over 500 heraldic terms in 6 languages, searchable word-to-picture or picture-to word);
Topics (over 200 articles, organized by themes – e.g., The French Royal Family: A
Genealogy of the Descendants of Hugues Capet
Latin place names
Modern equivalents of Latin place names & Latin equivalents of modern place names in
early printed books.
Digitization of the 2. ed. of the classic guide to the vernacular equivalents to Latin
placenames, J. G. Th. Grässe, Orbis Latinus: Lexikon lateinischer geographischer
Namen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, 1909 (later ed. H. & S.-C. Plechl, Braunschweig,
DE, 1972).
Latin place names found in the imprints of books printed before 1801 & their vernacular
equivalents in AACR2 form. Sponsored by Brigham Young University, Provo, UT &
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), Rare Books & Manuscripts
Section, Bibliographic Standards Committee.
English or other vernacular forms for the Latin names of printing towns as found in early
printed books.  
A working document of the Cathedral Libraries Catalogue, Books printed before 1701 in
the libraries of the Anglican Cathedrals of England & Wales
Austria Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz

Museum Mittelalterlicher Österreichischer Kunst, Vienna

Belgium The Groeninge Museum, Bruges

Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique

Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Gent
All include “Flemish Primitives.”

Czech Republic Národní galerie, Sbírka starého umení, Klášter sv. Anežky Ceské

France Musée des Augustins, Toulouse

Musée du Louvre

Musée National du Moyen Age (Thermes de Cluny)

Germany Bayerisches National Museum, Munich

Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg

Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg
Art c. 1300-present.

Liebieghaus Museum Alter Plastik, Frankfurt

Museum Schnütgen, Cologne
Early Middle Ages-Baroque.

Das Städelmuseum, Frankfurt
Includes Early Netherlandish painting.

Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Medieval paintings 1250-.

Museums in Germany

Israel Israel Museum, Jerusalem

The Jewish Diaspora Museum, Tel Aviv
Website includes virtual exhibitions.

Italy Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Italian art Trecento-.

Musei Vaticani

Museo nazionale del Bargello, Florence

Opera del Duomo, Florence

Medieval Art in Pisa
A virtual museum, Pisa 11-13 c.

The Netherlands Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Strong medieval collections.

Russia The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

UK The Ashmolean Museum of Art & Archaeology

British Museum

National Gallery, UK
Western European painting c.1200-1900.

Victoria & Albert Museum

USA Brooklyn Museum of Art

The Brummer Collection of Medieval & Renaissance Art, Duke U

Cleveland Museum of Art

The Getty

Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Cloisters

National Gallery of Art, USA
Art 1300-present.

Philadelphia Museum of Art

Walters Art Museum

European Museum Guide

Virtual Library museums pages
Maintained by Prof. Jonathan Bowen, London South Bank University.

Belgium Bibliothèque royale de Belgique/ Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België

Canada National Library of Canada

France Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Germany Deutsche Bibliothek

Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel

Kunstbibliothek Berlin

Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich

Italy Associazione italiana biblioteche

The Netherlands Koninklijke Bibliotheek, NL

Spain Biblioteca Nacional

Switzerland Stiftsbibliothek St. Gallen

UK Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

British Library

Cambridge University Library

Courtauld Institute, London

National Art Library, Victoria & Albert Museum, London

USA Clark Art Institute Library

The Frick Collection & Frick Art Reference Library

The Hill Monastic Manuscript Library

Library of Congress

The New York Public Library

Pierpont Morgan Library
Online catalog contains over 200,000 detailed records for medieval & Renaissance manuscripts, art objects, rare books, ancient seals & tablets, drawings, prints, & music manuscripts.

Watson Library, Metropolitan Museum, NY

Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Collections allow interdisciplinary research in medieval studies, art history.

European National Libraries
Information on their services, including their online exhibitions.

International Directory of Art Libraries

(Some) Libraries with Significant Medieval Holdings (English)

Centers for Medieval Studies, Research Institutes, Societies
American Numismatic Society

AVISTA: the Association Villard de Honnecourt for the Interdisciplinary Study of Science, Technology and Art
Focuses on the history of medieval technology and science. Publishes Avista Forum Journal (AFJ).

International Center of Medieval Art (ICMA)
Promotes the study of the visual arts of the Middle Ages in Europe. Publishes Gesta, monographic series (Publications of the International Center of Medieval Art, Census of Medieval Sculpture in American Public Collections), International Census of Doctoral Dissertations in Medieval Art (1982-93 in print; more complete & current listing available online); online resources by subject area

International Society for the Study of Pilgrimage Art
2000-, “brings together scholars who explore the art and architecture of pilgrimage in the late Middle Ages.” Publishes Peregrinations.

Medieval Academy of America

London Medieval Society
At University of London. Interdisciplinary; open membership, regular meetings.

Research Centre for Illuminated Manuscripts
The Courtauld Institute of Art, London.

Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie / Netherlands Institute for Art History
English version under construction.
4 linked online databases access the scholarly collections (Late Middle Ages-present); free use
RKDartists: more than 200,000 Dutch & foreign artists, c. 1200- (“the largest database of artists in the world”)
RKDcollections&archives: ca. 500 descriptions
RKDimages (see above, Images / Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie / Netherlands Institute for Art History ) RKDlibrary: ca. 450,000 titles, of which ca. 100,000 now entered.

See also hyperlinks on Art Hist: h-net information network for art history

Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies
Arizona State University.

Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, UCLA
Publishes the journal Viator.

It's Medieval and Renaissance Studies Links

Center for Medieval Studies at the University of Minnesota

Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, University of Oklahoma

Centre for Medieval Studies in the University of Toronto

Columbia University Ancient & Medieval Studies
“Internet Resources for Medievalists”
“Basic Bibliography in Medieval History”

The Columbia University Medieval Guild
Sponsors The Columbia Medievalist's Essential Homepage

Committee on Medieval Studies at Harvard University

Georgetown University Medieval Studies Program

Institute for Medieval Studies, University of Leeds, UK

Medieval Institute at Western Michigan U

Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame

Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, University of Toronto

Princeton University, Program in Medieval Studies

Stanford Library, resources for medieval studies

Texas Medieval Association

University of Chicago Medieval Studies Workshop

University of Connecticut Medieval Studies Program

More on Labyrinth site

College and University Home Pages
Alphabetical & geographical listings worldwide; 1996 but links spot-tested in December 2004 all worked.

Index of Art History Departments

International Congress on Medieval Studies
At Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI.

International Medieval Congress
At Institute for Medieval Studies, University of Leeds, UK. Publishes International Medieval Research (series). Brepols.

Medieval Academy of America annual meetings

Medieval studies conference calendar
At Medieval Academy of America.

On medieval art:
To join:

On all medieval subjects:
Medieval Academic Discussion Groups
Prof. Edwin Duncan, University of Toronto. A detailed listing of available medieval discussion lists; listservs, search engines, utilities.

See also Medieval Discussion Lists on Dan W. Mosser’s WWW Medieval Resources page.

Mediev-l Discussion List Archives
To join: send the message "sub MEDIEV-L your name" to