REFERENCE RESOURCES FOR EARLY CHRISTIAN ART & ARCHITECTURE
This bibliography is a guide to reference resources and some
introductory monographs that cover the Early Christian/Late
Antique period, roughly AD 250 to 500.
The Early Christian/Late Antique period is usually defined
as beginning in roughly 250 -- the later empire beginning
with Diocletian, Roman emperor from 284 to 305), but the end
of the period is contested. Frequently the end of the
period is identified as 526/7 when Justinian becomes the
Byzantine emperor (AD 526/7-565) or 632 the date coincident
with the rise of Islam in the Middle East. We must also
mention the date of 476 when Romulus Augustulus was deposed,
the last emperor of the west at Ravenna, the traditional end
of the Roman Empire in the West. During the last 20 or 30
years there has been an enormous amount of scholarly
research on the Late Antique Postclassical period – some
prominent scholars at Princeton, the University and the
Institute for Advanced Study, now prefer to extend the
period to AD 800 with the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome.
We needn’t be concerned here with the exact dates but
researchers should be aware of the controversy in defining
the early Christian/late antique period. This bibliography
includes resources to about 500, as Deborah Brown’s
presentation and bibliography begins with 500AD but remember
periodization varies enormously in the early Christian
Ernst Kitzinger, in a publication of 1940, stated “Classical
art became Medieval before it became Christian” (an
incisive assessment of changes in the art of the late Roman
period that is discussed in a book entitled Early Medieval
Art with illustrations from the British Museum (Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1940, p.16 not in the list of
introductory books in this bibliography) It is important to
remember that the new creed is not a primary cause of the
change, but rather that the art that the Christians took
from their pagan contemporaries was already on its way to
becoming medieval art. It derived from two sources, the
Classical and non-Classical (some now say ‘anti-Classical’)
artistic traditions seen in the late pagan empire.
It was a period when the Mediterranean world changed
dramatically. It saw the triumph of Christianity over
Paganism. Those who study the art of Early Christianity/Late
Antiquity find it one of the most exciting periods in all
history as many of the ideas and institutions important to
the Western, Latin, middle ages and the Eastern, Greek,
middle ages, were formed in this period.
Not surprisingly, the Classical Tradition continued
throughout this period and later as well even up to today.
Many of the sources mentioned in this bibliography are those
used in common by Classicists and Early Christian art
Two dates are especially significant in this regard:
1) The so-called Edict of Toleration (the so-called ‘Edict
of Milan’ neither an ‘edict’, nor issued at Milan) of 313
did not make Christianity the state religion. Rather,
Constantine and Licinius met at Milan and agreed to
recognize Christianity as a religion that could be openly
practiced – all religions were to be tolerated equally and
Christianity was just one of them. An amazing number of
print sources state that Constantine made Christianity the
state religion. Paganism continued to be practiced and
Emperor Julian ‘the Apostate’, the last emperor of the house
of Constantine, wanted to substitute paganism for
Christianity during his brief reign 361-363. It was not
until Emperor Theodosius I (346/7-395), who early in his
reign took only mild measures against Paganism, in 391
issued a series of harsh laws prohibiting public and private
sacrifice – a severe blow to Paganism but even that was not
the end of Pagan cults though it is usually considered to be
the establishment date of Christianity as the state
2) The earliest Christian gatherings were in houses. The
oldest surviving house that clearly was modified to serve as
a church was at Dura Europos on the Euphrates in present day
Syria. After It was extensively remodeled at ground level,
it no longer served as a residence. One room, the earliest
known, was a baptistery and two other rooms were
consolidated to serve as a worship space with a low dias on
the east end. The house had been rebuilt in 231 after an
earthquake and was modified for Christian usage ca. 241 very
close to our beginning date of ca. AD 250.
In the late 3rd century, as Christianity grew, some
congregations turned to non-residential buildings
(warehouses and rectangular municipal halls) to solve
congregational space problems. Two early 4th century
buildings that were designed and constructed de novo as
church buildings are: 1) Rome, Church of San Crisogono in
Trastevere, and 2) Syria, Qirk Bize, in the so-called ‘dead
cities’ west of Aleppo (west of Jebel ‘Ala). The fourth
century is accordingly a watershed for church design and
Early Christian churches and church-related structures
(baptisteries and martyria) are found throughout the near
east and Mediterranean basin – some known from excavations,
others only so far from literary evidence. Constantine built
a number of churches in Rome, the Levant (Holy Sepulcher,
the Eleona on the Mount of Olives, Golden Octagon in
Antioch), as well as churches in Constantinople, his new
capital – some of these were basilican in plan, others were
central plan buildings.
In the following bibliography, many entries have short
annotations; longer annotations are provided for some
entries that may not be familiar to users of the
bibliography. The bibliography also cites some older,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Bibliographies and Research Guides
II. Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
III. Serial Bibliographies and Journal Indexes
V. Book Reviews
VII. Internet Gateways
VIII. Introductory monographs
I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND RESEARCH GUIDES
Articles on antiquity in Festschriften, an index; the ancient near
east, the Old Testament, Greece, Rome, Roman law, Byzantium. Dorothy
Rounds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.
1178 festschriften on classical tradition, Rome and Byzantium through
1453. Publications with imprints through 1954.
Dictionary of bibliographic abbreviations found in the scholarship of
classical studies and related disciplines. Jean Susorney Wellington,
compiler. Rev. & expanded ed. Westport, CT, London: Praeger,
of abbreviations found in major journals, series and standard
reference works in classical studies. Provides full bibliographic
descriptions. Includes late antique and early Christian eras as well
as later medieval and Byzantine studies. Especially useful for serial
publications of regional archaeological and historical societies and
museums. Part 1 has abbreviations followed by alphanumeric codes
that refer users to bibliographic entries in part 2.
Festchriften in Art History, 1960-1975: Bibliography and Index. By
Betty Woelk Lincoln. (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities,
volume 745) New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1988.
useful source for access to this elusive scholarly literature in Art
History. All subjects (persons, places, things) relevant to the
history of art, architecture and related fields, are indexed
beginning with the Christian era. Includes 4,676 essays in 344
festschriften by 3099 authors. Fills the gap in coverage of
festschriften between Rave (entry #7) and BHA (entry #46).
Index of articles on the New Testament and the early church published
in Festschriften. Bruce Manning Metzger. (Journal of Biblical
Literature. Monograph series, vol. 5) Philadelphia, PA: Society of
Biblical Literature, 1951.
New Testament and the first five centuries of the early church in
about 600 festschriften from the beginning of the custom of
festschriften publication through 1949/50. Note section on early
church art and archaeology.
Index of Mediaeval studies published in festschriften, 1865-1946 with
special reference to Romanic material. Harry F. Williams, compiler.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951.
498 festschriften dealing with art, history, etc. from ‘about
the fifth century’ to the early 16th century.
Includes only materials of direct interest to medieval scholars.
Jenkins, Fred W. Classical Studies: A Guide to the Reference
Literature. Englewood, CO.: Libraries Unlimited,
Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture: an
annotated bibliography and historiography. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1992.
Though now mor ethan tne years old, it is still a very important
annotated biliograrphy - a beginning point to augment through other
Kunstgeschichte in Festschriften; allgemeine Bibliographie,
kunstwissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen in den bis 1960 erschienenen
Festschriften, von Paul Ortwin Rave, unter Mitarbeit von Barbara
Stein. Berlin: Mann, 1962.
earliest attempt at providing access to elusive scholarly literature
in Art History through 1960. Usually festschriften are cataloged
under the name of the honoree.
8. Lambrino, Scarlat, Ed. Bibliographie de l’antiquite
classique, 1896-1914, Paris: Societe d’Edition “Les
Belles Lettres,” 1951. Extremely useful early source,
predecessor title to entry 10 (q.v.).
Literature on Byzantine Art, 1892-1967. Edited by Jelisaveta S.
Allen. (Dumbarton Oaks Bibliographies. Series 1) London: Mansell,
published for the Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies,
Washington, D.C. 1973-1976. 2 volumes in 3. Volume 1 (Part 1: by
Location) in 2 volumes. Volume 2: Byzantine Art by categories.
Extremely useful for beginning research in this era as it includes
much peripheral information on art of other parts of the early
Christian/late antique world that has implications on or from
Byzantine art. Easy to augment by examining more recent cumulative
Marouzeau, J. Dix Annees de bibliographie classique: bibliographie
critique et analytique de l’antiquite greco-latine pour le
period 1914-1924. Paris: Societe d’Edition “Les Belles
Lettres,” 1927-1928. 2 volumes. Continues coverage of entry 8;
continued by entry #40?.
II. ENCYCLOPEDIAS AND
Allgemeines Kuenstlerlexikon. Die Bildenden Kuenstler aller Zeiten
und Voelker. (AKL) Bd. 1-3 (Aa-Aaron) Leipzig: E.A. Seemann Verlag,
1983-1990. Bd. 5 (Ardos-Avogard) –Bd. 39 (Ferrari
d’Orsara-Filippi) Muenchen/Leipzig: K. G. Sauer, 1992—in
progress. Some artists of the early Christian period are known and
hence included here.
Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Kuenstler von der Antike bis zur
Gegenwart. Bd. 1-36. Herausgegeben von Ulrich Thieme und Felix
Becker. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann Verlag, 1992. Supplemented by
Vollmer: Allegemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kuenstler des
XX.Jahrhunderts. Leipzig: Seeman, 1953-1962. 6 volumes.
(Reprint of the original
1907/1908 Leipzig edition) Again, includes some artists of the early
Brill’s New Pauly: encyclopedia of the ancient world, Edited by
Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider; English edition, managing editor,
Christine F. Salazar.(ISBN:9004122591) Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2002—
welcome English edition of Der Neue Pauly (q.v.). Part 1: Antiquity
(as of April 2004 three volumes have appeared: vol. 1. A-Ari –
vol.2 Ark-Cas – vol. 3. Cat-Cyp.)
Catholic Encyclopedia, an international work of reference on the
constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic
Church. Edited by Charles G. Herbermann. New York: Encyclopedia
Press, Inc., 1913. 15 volumes and index.
many cases very dated and insular, the scholarly entries are still
useful as well as the extensive bibliographies following each entry.
15. Dictionary of Art. Editor, Jane
Turner. NY: Grove’s Dictionaries, 1996. 34 volumes.
predecessor of the online Grove Dictionary of Art. Covers all visual
arts forms, prehistory to the 1990s. Detailed index volume very
Dictionnaire critique et documentaries des peintres, sculpteurs,
dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps et de tous le pays/par un
groupe de’acrivains specialists francais et etrangers.
Emmanuel Benezit. Nouvelle edition (4th). Paris: Gruend,
1999. 14 volumes. (ISBN: 2700030109 set)
Dictionnaire d’archeologie Chretienne et de liturgie. Edited
by Fernand Cabrol and Henri Leclerc.. Paris: Letousey et Ane,
1907-1953. 15 volumes in 19.
Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. 2nd edition. Edited by
Everett Ferguson, et. al. (Garland reference library of the
humanities, vol. 1839) New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1997.
Covers period from the life of Jesus
to ca. 600 A.D. (the latter date not observed rigidly).
persons, places, doctrines, practices, art, Iiturgy, heresies, and
schisms. Though it relies in large part on written texts by both
Christians and Non-Christians, entries are included on Christian art,
archaeology, and architecture, etc. Explains the early schism in the
church that have an impact on the art of the period from both
contemporary believers and non-believers. Covers concepts and
post-biblical writings. Extensive bibliographies.
Grove Dictionary of Art ONLINE. New York: Grove’s Dictionaries,
very useful and it does include some images, it is disappointing in
that it does not seem to keep bibliographies as current as they were
promised to be. Early on it seemed the more complete bibliographies
were only in the print edition and brief select bibliographies in the
electronic version, but both editions are the same now, just not up
Kuenstlerlexikon der Antike. Herausgegeben von Rainer Vollmer.
Redaktion Doris Vollkommer-Gloekler. Muenchen/Leipzig: K. G. Sauer,
(A-K). Bd. 2 (L-Z). Bd. 2 published?
1900 names, 3rd century BC (in case of Egypt back to 3000
B.C.) to 700 A.D. for the Mediterranean region. Long bibliography for
well-known architects, painters, sculptors, etc. from ancient
sources to date. (includes all art media including architecture).
Derived from AKL, but further along in alphabet than AKL so seems to
be in some way a separate endeavor.
Late antiquity, a guide to the postclassical World. Edited by G. W.
Bowersock, Peter Brown and Oleg Grabar. Cambridge: Belknap Press of
Harvard University Press, 1999.
eleven introductory essays on late antiquity, here defined as 250-800
A.D, there is an “Alphabetical Guide” comprising roughly
2/3 of the publication. The guide has entries that help explain the
uniqueness of this time period over the vast space of the Roman and
Sassanian empires – including western Europe, the eastern
empire, the Sassanian empire, and the early caliphate as well as more
distant societies that were implicated in the overall development of
the late antique period. Has a good index.
essays may have led librarians to place this in the stacks, but it
should be reference or a second copy should be bought for reference.
Extensive current bibliographies.
22. Lexikon der Alten
Welt. Zurich: Artemis, 1965.
ancient near east as well as the classical world.
Neue Pauly: Enzyklopaedie der Antike Altertum. Edited by
Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, 1996—
version of Paulys Realenzyclopaedie der classischen
Altertumswissenschaft with much newly written material and easier to
use. Multivolume work published in two sections. Nearly as hard to
use as the older editions, but at least it is up-to-date.
New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. 15 volumes.
Supplements: volume 16 (1974) & 17 (1979).
25. New Encyclopedia of
Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Editor, Ephraim Stern.
Israel Exploration Society & Carta; New York: Simon &
1993. 4 volumes.
Jewish, Christian and Muslim archaeology since the ‘dawn of
creativity’ to the Ottoman period. Covers traditional
boundaries of the Holy Land on both sides of the Jordan River and
from Sinai to Elath in the south to the sources of the Jordan River
in the north. Many excavation reports published here for the first
time, including new excavations, renewed excavations and excavations
untouched since the last edition of 1978. While most entries are
individual sites, there are some collective entries and overviews of
geographical regions that include sites that do not warrant separate
entries. Maps on end papers. Chronological tables, lists of kings,
and glossary of terms. Separate indexes of names, places and biblical
26. Oxford Classical Dictionary. 3rd
edition. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, editors.
Oxford University, 1996.
A standard general English-language
reference work on the classical world.
Oxford Companion to Christian art and architecture. By Peter Murray
and Linda Murray. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
to cover both western and eastern Christian art from the early
Christian period to the present. Useful generally-trustworthy
summary entries. Separate glossary of architectural terms with
cross-references to main text where necessary.
28. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. 3
volumes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
comprehensive coverage of all aspects of Byzantine history and
civilization covering the 4th to the 15th
century. Entries are interdisciplinary in nature with both major
survey and detailed topic articles. Bibliographies are selective and
emphasize monographs. Covers all regions that at any time formed
part of the Byzantine Empire as well as sites outside the empire’s
borders that had significant connections with Byzantium. Extremely
useful maps and genealogical tables. In general, uses the term late
Roman or Late Antique for the period of the 4th
to the early or mid-7th century and later.
29. Oxford Dictionary of the
Christian Church. 3rd edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Extremely useful handbook to the
Christian church intelligible to the lay person.
Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Prepared under
the auspices of the American Schools of Oriental Research; Editor in
chief, Eric M. Myers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 5
due to its comprehensive inclusion of Syria-Palestine archaeology
(from the eastern Mediterranean to Iran, Anatolia to the Arabian
Peninsula, Egypt, Cyprus and parts of North and East Africa. Covers
pre-history through the crusades including Islamic archaeology though
coverage of individual countries varies considerably due to the
nature of the excavations and interest in some time periods to the
exclusion of others. Many drawings, plans and photographs as well as
separate series of detailed regional maps in the fifth volume.
Detailed index and synoptic outline of the conceptual scheme of the
Paulys Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Edited by August Friedrich von Pauly. Neue
Bearbeit under Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgenossen herausgegeben von
Georg Wissowa. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1894-1972. Reihe I, 47
volumes in 48; Reihe II, 19 volumes.
reference work, though now in many cases dated, for every area of
32. Paulys Realencyclopaedie der classischen
Altertumswissenscahft. Supplement. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler,
1903-1978. 16 volumes.
Paulys Realenzyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Gesamtregister. Edited by Tobias Erler, et. al. Stuttgart: J.
B. Metzler, 1997 – Print and computer laser optical disc.
index to all 83 volumes of Pauly-Wissowa including supplements,
addenda and corrigenda. In two parts: an alphabetical subject index,
and systematic classified subject index.
Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Edited by Richard
Stillwell, et. al., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
very useful for sites all over the classical world.
Reallexikon fuer Antike und Christentum: Sachwoerterbuch zur
Auseinandersetzung des Christentums mit der Antiken Welt, in
Verbindung mit Franz Joseph Doelger, Hans Leitzmann und unter
besonderer Mitwirkung von Jan Hendrik Wasznik und Leopold Wenger.
Herausgegeben von Theodor Klauser. (ISBN:3777250066 set) Stuttgart:
A. Hiersemann, 1950—
1 (Alpha & Omega, published in 1950) – Bd. 19 (Itinerarium
– Kannibalismus, published in 2000); Register, Bd. 1-15
(published in 2000). Update supplements, Lieferung 10 (Bruecke
– Carmen ad quondam senatorem (published in 2003). Register
Band, Keywords and Authors, Bd.1-16 (published in 1994). Published
in fascicles, Lieferung 158 (latest as of 2004).
Reallexikon zur Byzantinischen Kunst (RBK). Herausgegeben von Klaus
Wessel. Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1966 in progress. Lieferung
46 (2002): Musterbuecher – Nerezi.
published one or two per year/ eight lieferungen per volume. Covers
late antique period in the East and people, states, cities of the
Christian east. Especially useful for North
Africa, Levant, and Turkey.
37. Thieme-Becker/Vollmer Gesamtregister: Register zum
Allgemeinen Lexikon der
Kuenstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart und zum Allgemeinen
Lexikon der bildenden Kuenstler des XX Jahrhunderts.
Muenchen/Leipzig: K. G. Sauer.
I: Laender (Bd. 1-3 published in 1996); Teil II: Kuenstlerische
Berufe (Bd. 1-3 published in 1997)
Woerterbuch der Alt Christlichen Kunst. Kassel: Johannes
especially useful for German translations of Latin expressions and
architectural terms. “Anhang” of important Greek words
translated into German.
III. SERIAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES &
39. L’ Annee philologique:
bibliographie critique et analytique de’antiquite greco-latine.
Societe d’Edition “Les Belles Lettres,” 1928-.
bibliography of the literature on Greek and Roman antiquity including
all regions that had cultural relations and trade with Greece and
Rome. Also lists references to the survival of antiquity in later
periods including the medieval period in the Greek East and Latin
West. Divided into both an author and classified subject section.
Earlier publications covered by entries #8 and 10 (supra).
Archaeologische Bibliographie. Berlin: W. de Gruyter & Co.,
supplement to (and often bound with): Jahrbuch des Deutschen
literature beginning with 1994 see Projekt DYABOLA.
Art Abstracts/Art Index Retrospective. New York: H. W. Wilson &
Index Retrospective (1929-1984); Art Abstracts, 1984 –present.
Art Full Text (Online). 1984 –present.
43. Arts & Humanities Citation
Index (Online). 1975—present.
44. Avery Index to Architectural
index to worldwide scholarly, popular, professional and governmental
publications on architecture including archaeological sites 1930s to
date. Selective indexing 1860s to 1930s. Published by the Getty Trust
and Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library of Columbia
index to architectural periodicals (Online)
45. Bibliography of the History of
Art: BHA = Bibliographie d'histoire de l'art. (ISSN:1150-1588)
France : Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Institut de
l'information scientifique et technique ; Santa Monica, Calif. : J.
Paul Getty Trust, Getty Art History Information Program. Vol. 1/1
(1991)-v. 8/4 (1998)
art from Early Christian/ Late Antique period to date. Indexes and
Abstracts art- related books, conference proceedings, dissertations,
festschriften and journal articles.
version (1973 to present) includes and extends the coverage of its
two predecessor indexes: RAA (Repertoire d’art et
d’archeologie) 1973-1989 and RILA (International Repertory of
the Literature of Art) 1975-1989. For coverage prior to 1973 see RAA
(Repertoire d’Art et d’Archeologie) 1910—1973.
Bulletin Signaletique 526: Art et archeologie. Proche-Orient, Asie,
Amerique. 1970-1990. Paris, Centre de
documentation du CNRS, 1970-1990.
Continued by Francis Bulletin Signaletique 526, Art et
archeologie. The Near-East section used to be useful for new books
and excavation reports. Cannot determine that it is still being
Muenchen: C. H.
Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1892 -- present.
articles, signed reviews and notices. Each semi-annual issue includes
“Bibliographische Notizen und Mitteilungen” section.
Abteilung 7 “Kunstgeschichte” is a current classified
bibliography of articles on all aspects of Byzantine Art and culture,
as well as the art and culture of antiquity and the Latin west as
they relate to those of Byzantium. Includes some abstracts. Includes
all languages unlike most other such publications.
version available as of September 2002 covers volumes 84(1991) to 93
(2000) and the three Supplementum Bibliographicum issues. Muenchen:
K.G. Saur, 2002.
Fasti Archaeologici, Annual Bulletin of Classical Archaeology.
Formerly: Firenze, Sansoni Editore vol. 1(1946); now Firenze, Casa
Editrice, vol. 38/41(1997).
all media. Very late in publication. Section VI Christianity and
Late Antiquity, has three parts: 1). Christian and Late Antique
Civilization and Art, 2). Regions and sites – the East, 3)
Regions and sites – the West. . .
Francis, bulletin signaletique. 526, Art et archeologie.
(ISSN:1157-3767). Paris: Centre national de la recherché
scientifique, Institut de l’information scientifique et
technique, Sciences humaines et socials, 1991-??
Bulletin Signaletique 526: Art et archeologie. Proche-Orient, Asie,
Gnomon: Kritische Zeitschrift fuer die gesamte klassische
Altertumswissenschaft. Muenchen: C. H. Beck’sche
Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1925 –present.
issues per year; alternative issues contain a “Bibliographische
Beilage” listing recent Classical Studies books and articles
for Ancient History, Classical Philology and Archaeology. Each issue
also has several reviews.
51. Humanities Index Full Text, 1994
52. Humanities Index. New York, H. W.
53. International Medieval
Bibliography (ISSN:0020-7950) http://www.brepolis.net/
Leeds, England: University of Leeds;
Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, vol. 1(1971)-32(1998). Online and CDROM
bibliography for articles published in serials and miscellany volumes
(conference proceedings, collected essays, festschriften and
exhibition catalogues). Covers the European middle ages, covers
400-1500 A.D. Indexing by medievalists for medievalists.
Europe, Middle East and North Africa. Twice a year.
Projekt DYABOLA (Dynamically Accumulating Database on Objects and
Literature about Antiquity).
includes a number of Deutsche Archaeologische Institut (DAI)
databases. Most important for our topic are the electronic version
Archaeologische Bibliographie, the annual bibliography (books,
articles, symposia, and Festschriften) of literature on classical,
early Christian, Byzantine, early Medieval, and ancient near eastern
art and archaeology published by the DAI in Rome, annual print
publication from 1994 to date.
as an annual CDROM disc. When a new disc is published, the earlier
year is added to the Vollstandige Realkatalog des DAI in Rom
and cumulated with all earlier issues in one database so that the
CDROM only covers the latest year.
Sachkatalog der RGK (Roman-Germanic Commission) in Frankfurt, a
subject catalog covering archaeology of the Roman provinces and
Medieval Europe, annual publication 1992 to date;
Vollstaendige Realkatalog des DAI in Rom, the complete
subject catalog of the DAI, one of the most complete libraries
devoted to classical studies founded in 1829 covering Classical
archaeology, Egyptian archaeology, and archaeology of the near east,
annual publication 1993 to date;
des DAI Madrid, new acquisitions with systematic subject headings
covering all aspects of Iberian peninsula archaeology including
Jewish and Islamic history, annual publication 1991 to date.
electronic at: http://www.db.dyabola.de/
intuitive in the least and extremely idiosyncratic. Hard to remember
how to use it users are only sporadic. Recently seems to keep
changing without notification as to what is going on and where
favorite useful sections are to be found. Nevertheless, it is a basic
tool for Classics and for the classical tradition. Happily, online
useful guides have been prepared by Barbara Polowy (Smith College),
Lucie Stylianopoulos (University of Virginia), and Jean Wellington
(Classics Library, University of Cincinnati) as well as Susan Willets
(Institute of Classical Studies, University of London).
55. Repertoire d’art
et d’archeologie. (ISSN:0080-0953)
(1910-1964); nouv. ser., 1 – 25 (1965-1989). Merged with:
Repertoire international de la literature de l’art, to form:
Bibliography of the history of art.
Repertoire international de la literature de l’art: RILA =
international repertory of the literature of art. (ISSN:0145-5982)
1973 Demonstration issue. Vol. 1,no.
1 (1975) –vol. 15, pt. 21 (1989).
Merged with Repertoire d’art
et d’archeologie to form: Bibliography of the history of art.
TOCS-IN: Tables of contents of journals of interest to classicists.
Toronto: University of Toronto, 1999 -present.
the table of contents – for searching, browsing, or downloading
-- of about 185 journals interest to classics, near eastern studies,
and religion journals, both in text format and through a Web search
program. Project began to archive current contents of journals in
1992 in Toronto with a mirror site in Louvain that archives much
additional material for some journals before 1992. TOCS-IN is an
entirely volunteer project (80 volunteers from 16 countries) and does
not index electronic journals.
58. Atlas of Christian sites in Egypt, by Otto Meinardus. Le Caire:
Societe d’archeologie Copte, 1962. Only six leaves.
Atlas of classical history from 1700 B.C. to A.D. 565. 5th
edition. Michael Grant, 1914- New York: Oxford University Press,
Has good maps of late empire to 476.
Atlas of the early Christian world. By Frederick van der Meer and
Christine Mohrmann. Translated and edited by Mary F. Hedlund, and H.
H. Rowley. London: Nelson, 1958.
maps and endpapers, but has extensive period and geographical
summaries along with numerous illustrations and notes covering
post-Apostolic times to about 600 A.D. Detailed geographical index to
maps and plates and a separate index of persons and things in the
maps, plates and text. Separate section of notes to the plates. While
obviously dated, it contains a wealth of knowledge on the early
Christian world and is still useful for many older excavation sites
as it indicates proximity to many known sites.
61. Atlas of the Greek and Roman
World in Antiquity. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press, 1981.
Good maps of Roman provinces (North
Africa, Egypt and eastern provinces).
Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte der christlichen kirchen in Geschichte
und Gegenwart. Hubert Jedin, herausgeber. et. al. Freiburg in
Breisgau, Germany: Verlag Herder KG, 1970.
Maps of the early
Christian period especially useful.
Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman world. Richard J. A. Talbert
in collaboration with Roger S. Bagnall, et. al. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2000.
for late Roman period useful.
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names on Line. (TGN)
useful source for exact location of a place and all the variations on
a place name. Hierarchical position of more than one million places,
but not all places are included as the project is still in progress.
Emphasis is on places that are important to art and architecture.
Provides access to a site from variant names to the preferred name of
the site, as well as the exact coordinates for the name place and the
geographic hierarchy for a place. The issue of proximity of one
place to another is still hard to determine, hence the inclusion of
several atlases in this part of this bibliography that provide maps
of early Christian/late antique place name locations. a so
Historical Maps on File. Revised edition. New York: Facts on File,
useful maps on ancient civilization, particularly late antique
period. Inasmuch as it is a loose-leaf atlas, it is more current than
most atlases listed in this bibliography, but, by reason of its
attempt at comprehensiveness, there are only a few maps relevant to
the early Christian period.
V. BOOK REVIEWS
66. Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
(ISSN:1055-7660) November 1990 – to date.
current monographs in all areas of Classical Studies, broadly
interpreted. No paper publication. Reviews are posted as soon as the
editors have received and edited them. As reviews are posted, they
are archived and available for viewing, searching, and printing.
Indexed by reviewer and author of work. Can be browsed by year.
Medieval Review (formerly Bryn Mawr Medieval Review [August
1993-February 1996]. March 1996 — to date, known as TMR (The
Medieval Review) Moderated distribution list of the Medieval
Institute, College of Arts and Sciences, Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
current monographs in all areas of Medieval Studies, broadly
interpreted. No paper publication. Reviews are posted as soon as the
editors have received and edited them. As reviews are posted they are
archived and available for viewing, searching, and printing. Indexed
by reviewer and author of work. Can be browsed by year.
Encyclopedia of comparative iconography: themes depicted in works of
art. Helene Roberts, editor. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998. 2
many narratives and themes from mythology, religion and literature
that animate the history of art. Orders iconographic narratives
according to the actions performed by the characters, to the
situations in which they find themselves, and concepts relating to
these situations and actions. Several extensive indexes.
Iconography of Christian art. 2nd edition. Gertrud
Schiller. Translated by Janet Seligman. Greenwich, CT: New York
Graphic Society, 1971-1972. 2 volumes.
of only 1st & 2nd volumes of the original German
edition (birth through passion of Christ).
Iconographie de l’art chretienne. Louis Reau. Paris: Presses
Universitaires de France, 1955-59. 3 volumes in 6. (Reprint:
Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1974)
Early Christian representations to the 20th century
emphasis on Western medieval. Each subject heading provides
translations of terms in from two to eight languages, providing a
polyglot dictionary of terms.
Ikonographie der Christlichen Kunst. Gertrud Schiller. Guetersloh,
Germany: Guetersloher Verlagshaus G. Mohn, 1966 – 1990. 5
volumes in 8. Index for volumes 1-4.
of major events in the life of Christ and the Virgin arranged
1-3: Christ and his life to the Transfiguration; vol. 4, part 1: the
Church; part 2: Mary; vol. 5, Apocalypse of John in two parts.
72. Index of Christian Art
Iconographic resource for mostly Western art from early apostolic
times to 1400 A.D. (extended in case of the Morgan and Princeton
Library projects to end of the 16th century). Includes
manuscripts, metalwork, sculpture, painting and glass. To be
examined in detail by Colum Hourihane another presenter in this
Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Engelbert Kirschbaum S.J.,
herausgeber, in Zusammenarbeit mit Guenter Bandmann, et. al. Rom:
Herder, 1968-1976. 8 volumes.
early Christian and Byzantine as well as early, high and late middle
ages, Renaissance and Baroque as well as Slavic art. Includes brief
index by feast day, and attributes in last volume. Comprehensive and
now somewhat dated but useful for our period.
improved and current product beta version rolled out in April 2004.
Housed and maintained by staff at Archaeological Research Institute
at Arizona State University. Site will be accessible in English,
French, German, Spanish, Turkish and Esperanto. For topics it is
supposed to include Medieval Studies, Classical Bibliography, and for
regions Africa, Europe, and Near East. In the past, the site has had
an anthropological emphasis, but this is supposed to change. Seems to
be a student project.
75. Argos http://argos.evansville.edu
Temporarily(?) withdrawn ancient and
medieval internet site.
76. Classics and Mediterranean
Archaeology (C&MA) http://www.classics.lsa.umich.edu
links of interest to classicists and Mediterranean archaeologists.
See particularly Europe - Antiquities, Mediterranean region -
Antiquities, and Classical antiquities.
77. Internet Medieval Sourcebook
at Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. Part of the
Internet History Sourcebooks project of public-domain and
copy-permitted historical texts. Online resources of medieval and
Byzantine sources. Note especially selected sources on the end of the
classical world, Pagan late antiquity and Christian late antiquity.
Iter: Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
(AKA: The bibliography of
Medieval and Renaissance Europe from 400-1700) Toronto: University of
Toronto. Password protected.
of Iter is to increase access to all published materials pertaining
to the Renaissance (1300-1700) and, eventually, to the Middle Ages
(400-1500) through the creation of online bibliographic databases.
Headquartered in Toronto, with partners in NYC and Tempe, AZ. Has
several parts, of most interest here is the Iter Bibliography.
source for mostly western medieval, but includes American Expedition
to Tell Tuneinir Syria excavations.
80. NETSERF http://www.netserf.org
Very useful connection for medieval
resources for both Latin West and Greek East.
medieval archaeology. Note Hypertext Medieval Glossary of ca. 1500
81. ORB http://www.the-orb.net/
reference books for medieval studies. Recently moved to College of
Staten Island, CUNY. Internal search engine not working due to move.
See sections on late antiquity and the early church, as well as Early
church in late antiquity – a select introductory bibliography.
82. ROMARCH: Roman Art and
Roman art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 100
B.C. to 700 A.D. Formerly at University of Michigan and later at the
University of Cincinnati and Stanford University. Primary
organizational structure is by geographic region.
83. Worlds of Late Antiquity
all manner of miscellaneous materials relating to the late antique
culture of the Mediterranean world (defined here as roughly 200-700
A.D.). The author, James O’Donnell, left the University of
Pennsylvania in 2002 for Georgetown and while the Penn site is
supposed to be live, only the Georgetown site is to be ‘consistently
current & accurate.’
VIII. INTRODUCTORY MONOGRAPHS
This short bibliography of monographs
on the early Christian period, covers mostly recent publications on
the topic – though some early particularly significant
publications are included -- and is limited to the art and art-making
milieu of roughly 250 to 500AD – a periodization agreed upon by
the presenters at the workshop. Accordingly, monographs included
here are those that treat only of this period. It does not include
festschriften, or collections of the articles of a particular author
nor books that cover both the early Christian and Byzantine period
unless the book is devoted mostly to the early Christian period.
Finally, it does not include monographs devoted to a particular
monument. We have tried to provide regional coverage where the
monuments of a geographic region are particularly important for this
1. Art, archaeology, and
architecture of early Christianity, edited with an introduction by
Paul Corby Finney. NY: Garland Publishing, 1993. (Studies in early
Christianity, vol. 18)
2. Badawy, Alexander. Coptic art and
archaeology: The art of the Christian Egyptians from the late antique
to the middle ages. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978.
3. Bianchi Bandinelli, Ranuccio.
Rome: The Late Empire, Roman Art A.D. 200-400.Translated by Peter
Green. New York: G. Braziller, 1971. (Arts of Mankind, v. 17)
4. Beckwith, John, 1918-. Early
Christian and Byzantine Art. 2nd (integrated) edition. New
Haven: Penguin,1986. (Pelican History of Art).
5. Blessings of pilgrimage. Edited by
Robert Ousterhout. Urbana: University of Illinois Pres, 1990.
(Illinois Byzantine studies, 1)
6. Bovini, Giuseppe. Edifici de culto
d’eta paleocristiania nel Territorio Ravennate di Classe.
Bologna: Casa Editrici, 1969.
7. Bovini, Giuseppe and Hugo and
Brandenburg. Repertorium der Christlich-Antiken
Sarcophage. 2 volumes in 3. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1967.
8. Bovini, Giuseppe. Storia e
architettura degli edifici paleocristiani de culto di Ravenna.
Bologna: R. Patron, 1964. 3 volumes.
9. Brilliant, Richard. Gesture and
Rank in Roman Art: The uses of Gestures to Denote Status in Roman
Sculpture and Coinage. New Haven, CT: Connecticut Academy of Arts &
Sciences, 1963. (Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts &
Sciences, no. 14)
10. Butler, Howard Crosby. Early
Churches in Syria, fourth to seventh centuries. Edited and completed
by E. Baldwin Smith. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1929.
[Reprint: Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1969]
11. Crowfoot, John Winter. Early
churches in Palestine. London: Published for the British Academy by
H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1941. (Reprint: College Park,
Maryland: McGrath Publishing Company, 1971) (Schweich lectures,
12. De Angelis d’Ossat,
Guglielmo, 1907- Studi ravennati; problemi di architettura
paleocristiania. Ravenna, Edizioni Dante, 1962.
13. De Paor, Maire. Early Irish art.
Dublin: Department of Foreign Affairs, 1979.
14. Deichmann, Friedrich Wilhelm.
Archeologia cristiana. Roma: “L’Erma” di
Friedrich Wilhelm. Ravenna, Haupstadt des spaetantiken Abendlandes.
3 volumes in 5. Weisbaden: F. Steiner, 1969-1989.
16. Deichmann, Friedrich Wilhelm.
Temi di iconografia paleocristiana. Cura e introduzione di Fabrizio
Bisconti. Cittta del Vaticano: Pontificio Istituto di archeologia
cristiana, 2000, (Sussidi allo studio delle antichita cristiana, 13)
17. Du Bourget, Pierre. Art of the
Copts. New York: Crown Publishers, 1971.
18. Du Bourget, Pierre. Early
Christian art. New York: Reynal, 1971.
19. Effenberger, Arne.
Fruehchristliche Kunst und Kultur, von den Anfaengen bis zum 7 .
Jahrhundert. Muenchen: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1986.
20. Eglises de village de la Syrie du
nord. Paris: Librairie orientaliste P. Geuthner, 1979-1980. 2 vol.
(Bibliotheque archaeologique et historique/ Institut francais
d’archeologique du Proche-Orient, t. 105)
21. Elsner, Jas. Imperial Rome and
Christian triumph: the art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. Oxford,
NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.
22. Fausone, Alfonso M. Die Taufe in
der fruehchristlichen Sepulkralkunst: eine
archaeologisch-ikonologische Studie zu den Urspruengen des Bildthemas
Roma: Pontificio Istituto de Archeologia Cristiana, 1982. (Studi di
antichita cristiana, 35)
23. Finney, Paul Corby. The Invisible
God: the earliest Christians on art. NY: Oxford University Press,
24. Fruehchristliche Kunst in Rom und
Konstantinopel. Schaetze aus dem Museum fuer Spaetantike und
Byzantinische Kunst Berlin. Paderborn: Erzbischoefliches
25. Gerster, Georg, 1928- Churches in
Rock: Early Christian Art in Ethiopia. London: Phaidon, 1970.
26. Grabar, Andre. 1896-1990.The
Beginnings of Christian Art, 200-395. Translated by Stuart Gilbert
and James Emmons. London: Thames and Hudson, 1967.(Arts of Mankind)
27. Grabar, Andre. 1896-1990.
Christian iconography, a study of its origins. (Translated from the
French by Terry Grabar) Princeton, NJ; Princeton University Press,
1968. (Bollingen Series, 35. The A.W. Mellon lectures in the fine
28. Gui, Isabelle. Basiliques
chretiennes d’Afrique du nord; inventaire et typologie. Texte
initial per Isabelle Gui; revise et complete par Noel Duvan et
Jean-Pierre Caillet. Volume 1: Inventaire des monuments de l'Algerie
(2 vols) Paris: Institut des etudes augustiniennes, 1992. All
published? (Collection des etudes augustiniennes. Serie Antiquite,
29. Henry, Francoise. Irish art in
the early Christian period. London: Methuen, 1965.
30. Images of Inspiration, the Old
Testament in early Christian art. Edited by Joan Goodick Westenholz.
Jerusalem: Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem, 2000.
31. Jensen, Robin Margaret.
Understanding early Christian art. NY: Routledge, 2000.
32. Jerphanion, Guillaume de,
1877-1948. La Voix des monuments, notes et etudes d’archaeologie
chretienne. Paris: Les Editions van Oest, 1930. Nouvelles series.
Roma: Pontificio Istituto Orientale, 1938.
33. Kemp, Wolfgang. Christliche
Kunst: Ihre anfaenge/Ihre strukturen. Muenchen: Schirmer-Mosel, 1994.
34. Khatchatrian, A. Les Baptisteres
paleochretiens, plans, notices, et bibliographie. Avant-propos de
Andre Grabar. Paris: Klincksieck, 1962.
35. Khatchatrian, A. Origine et
typologie des baptisteries paleochretiens. Mulhouse: Centre de
culture chretienne, 1982,
36. Kirsch, Johann Peter, 1861-1941.
Le catacombe romane. Roma: Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia
Cristiana, 1933. (Collezione “Amici della catacombe” 1)
37. Kitzinger, Ernst, 1912-.
Byzantine art in the making: main lines of stylistic development in
Mediterranean Art, 3rd to 7th century.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.
38. Kleiner, Diana E. E. Roman
Imperial Funerary Altars with Portraits. Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider,
39. Koch, Guntram. Early Christian
art & architecture, an introduction. (Translation of the
original German publication: Fruehchristliche Kunst; eine einfuhrung,
Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Gmbh, 1995) London: SCM Press, 1996.
40. Krautheimer, Richard, 1897-1994 &
Slobodan Curcic. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. 4th
edition. New Haven: Viking Penguin, 1986. (Pelican History of Art)
41. Lange, Reinhold. Das Marienbild
der fruehen Jahrhunderte. Recklinghausen: Bongers, 1969.
42. Lewis, Elizabeth Bruening. Power
of sacred images, a guide to the treasures of early Christian art.
Allen Texas, Christian Classics, 1997.
43. Liesenberg, Kurt. Der Einfluss
der Liturgie auf die Fruhchristliche Basilika. Inaugural
dissertation – Albert Ludwigs Universitaet zu Freiburg im
Breisgau. Neustadt an der Haardt, Druck und Verlag der Pfaelzischen
44. Mackie, Gillian Vallance. Early
Christian chapels in the West: Decoration, function, and patronage.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.
45. Maguire, Eunice Dauterman. Art
and holy powers in the early Christian house. Eunice Dauterman
Maguire, Henry P. Maguire, and Maggie J. Duncan-Flowers, with
contributions by Anna Gonosova and Barbara Oehlschlanger-Garvey.
Urbana, Illinois: Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1989. (Illinois
Byzantine studies, 2)
46. Mathews, Thomas F. The Clash of
Gods: a reinterpretation of early Christian art. Revised and expanded
edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
47. Morey, Charles R. Early Christian
Art: An Outline of Style and Iconography in Sculpture and Painting
from Antiquity to the Eighth Century. Princeton: Princeton University
48. Muzj, Maria Giovanna. Vizione e
presenzza. Iconografia e teofania nel pensiero di Andre Grabar.
Milano: La Casa di Matriiona, 2000.
49. L’Orange, Hans Peter. Art
Forms and Civic Life in the Late Roman Empire. Translated by Knut
Berg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.
50. L’Orange, Hans Peter and
Reingart Unger. Das spaetantike Herrscherbild von
Diokletion bis zu den Konstantintin-Soehnen 284-361 nach Christ. With
supplement by Max Wegner, Die Bildnisse der Frauen und des Julian.
(Das Roemische Herrscherbild, Abteilung 3, Band 4) Berlin: Gebrueder
51. Lowrie, Walter. Art
in the early church. Second edition, revised. NY: Harper Torch
52. Ovadiah, Asher.
Corpus of the Byzantine Churches of the Hold Land. Bonn: Peter
Hanstein Verlag Gmbh, 1970. (Theophaneia, 22)
53. Perkins, Ann Louise,
1915- The Art of Dura Europos. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.
54. Poulsen, Vagn.
Les portraits romains. Volume 2, De Vespasien a la
Basse-Antiquite. Translated by Ghani Merad. Copenhagen: Glyptotheque
Ny Carlsberg, 1977-74. (Archaeologica 36)
55. Riegl, Alois. Late Roman Art
Industry. Translated with foreword, annotations from an 1898 lecture,
bibliography and glossary by Rolf Winkes. Rome: Giorgio
Bretschneider, 1985. (Archaeologica 36)
56. Ristow, Sebastian.
Fruehchristliche Baptisterien. Muenster, Westfalen: Aschendorffesche
57. Sanderson, Warren. Early
Christian buildings: a graphic introduction. Champlain, NY: Astrion
58. Schreckenberg, Heinz und Kurt
Schubert. Jewish Historiography and iconography in early and
medieval Christianity. Assen/Maastricht, Van Gorcum, 1992. (Jewish
traditions in early Christian literature, vol. 2)
59. Stanzel, Gunther. Laengsbau und
Zentralbau als Grundthema der Fruehchristlichen Architektur:
Ueberlegungen zur Entstehung der Kuppelbasiilka Wien: Verlag der
Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1979. (Denkschriften –
Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Bd. 139)
60. Strong, Eugenie Sellers. Art in
Ancient Rome. Volume 2, From the Flavian Dynasty to Justinian, with
chapters on Painting and the Minor Arts in the First Century A.D.
London: William Heinemann, 1928.
61. Strzygowski, Josef. Orient oder
Rom: Beitraege zur Geschichte der Spaetantiken und fruehchristlichen
Kunst. Leipzig: J. C. Hinricshs’sche Buchandlung, 1901.
62 Studien zur fruehchristlichen
Kunst/ herausgegeben von Guntram Koch. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz,
1982— three volumes published so far; all published?
(Goettinger Orientforshungen. II Reihe, Studien zur spaetantiken und
fruehchristliche Kunst, Bd. 6, 8-9)
63. Tchalenko, Georges. Villages
antiques de la Syrie du Nord: le massif du Belus a l’epoque
romaine. 3 volumes. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1953-1958. . (Bibliotheque
archaeologique et historique, tome 50)
64. Temi di iconografia
paleocristiana, cure e introduzione di Fabrizio Bisconti. Citta del
Vaticano: Pontificio Istituto di archeologia cristiana, 2000.
(Sussidi allo studio della antichita cristiana, 13)
65. Torelli, Mario. Typology and
Structure of Roman Historical Reliefs. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press, 1982. (Jerome Lectures, Fourteenth Series)
66. Toynbee, Jocelyn M. C. Roman
Historical Portraits. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978.
67. Tristan, Frederick. Les premieres
images Chretiennes, du symbole a l’icone: I ie-V ie siecle
n.p.: Librarie Artheme Fayard, 1996.
68. Van der Meer, Frederik, 1904 -.
Early Christian art. London: Faber and Faber , 1967. (Translated
from the German edition [ Altchristliche Kunst; Koeln: J. P. Bachem,
1960] a revision of the original Dutch [Oudchristelijke Kunst: Zeist,
W. de Haan N.V., 1959 edition)
69. Vermeule, Cornelius C. The Cult
Images of Imperial Rome. (Archaeologica 71) Rome: Giorgio
70. Vermeule, Cornelius C. Roman
Imperial Art in Greece and Asia Minor. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press
of Harvard University, 1968.
71. Volbach, Wolfgang Fritz. Early
Christian Art. Photography by Max Hirmer. New York: Harry N. Abrams,
72. Walker, Susan. Memorials to the
Roman Dead. London: British Museum Publications, 1985.
73. Warland, Rainer. Das Brustbild
Christi, Studien zur Spaetantiken und fruehbyzantinischen
Bildgeschichte. Rom: Herder, 1986. (Romische Quartalschrift fuer
Christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte, 41.
74. Weitzmann, Kurt, 1904- The
frescoes of the Dura synagogue and Christian art. Kurt Weitzmann and
Herbert L. Kessler. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library
and Collection, 1990. (Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 28)
75. Weitzmann, Kurt, 1904-. Late
Antique and Early Christian Book Illumination. New York: George
76. Wessel, Klaus. Coptic Art
(translated from the German by Jean Carroll and Sheila Hatton)’
New York: McGraw-Hill, 
77. White, L. Michael. Social
Origins of Christian architecture. Valley Forge, Pa: Trinity Press,
 –1997. Volume I: Building God’s house in the
Roman World: architectural adaptation among pagans, Jews and
Christians. Volume 1 (1990 edition) also reprinted: Baltimore:
Published for the American Schools of Oriental Research by Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1990Volume 2: Texts and monuments for the
Christian domus ecclesiae in its environment . (Harvard
Theological Studies, no. 42)
78. Wickhoff, Franz. Roman Art: Some
of its Principles and their application to Early Christian Painting.
Translated and edited by Eugenie Strong. London: William Heinemann;
New York: Macmillan, 1900. .
79. Wood, Susan. Roman Portrait
Sculpture 217-260 A.D.; The Transformation of an Artistic Tradition.
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986. (Columbia Studies in the Classical
Tradition, no. 12)