This bibliography is a guide to reference resources and some introductory monographs that cover the Early Christian/Late Antique period, roughly AD 250 to 500.

The Early Christian/Late Antique period is usually defined as beginning in roughly 250 -- the later empire beginning with Diocletian, Roman emperor from 284 to 305), but the end of the period is contested. Frequently the end of the period is identified as 526/7 when Justinian becomes the Byzantine emperor (AD 526/7-565) or 632 the date coincident with the rise of Islam in the Middle East. We must also mention the date of 476 when Romulus Augustulus was deposed, the last emperor of the west at Ravenna, the traditional end of the Roman Empire in the West. During the last 20 or 30 years there has been an enormous amount of scholarly research on the Late Antique Postclassical period – some prominent scholars at Princeton, the University and the Institute for Advanced Study, now prefer to extend the period to AD 800 with the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome. We needn’t be concerned here with the exact dates but researchers should be aware of the controversy in defining the early Christian/late antique period. This bibliography includes resources to about 500, as Deborah Brown’s presentation and bibliography begins with 500AD but remember periodization varies enormously in the early Christian centuries.

Ernst Kitzinger, in a publication of 1940, stated “Classical art became Medieval before it became Christian” (an incisive assessment of changes in the art of the late Roman period that is discussed in a book entitled Early Medieval Art with illustrations from the British Museum (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1940, p.16 not in the list of introductory books in this bibliography) It is important to remember that the new creed is not a primary cause of the change, but rather that the art that the Christians took from their pagan contemporaries was already on its way to becoming medieval art. It derived from two sources, the Classical and non-Classical (some now say ‘anti-Classical’) artistic traditions seen in the late pagan empire.

It was a period when the Mediterranean world changed dramatically. It saw the triumph of Christianity over Paganism. Those who study the art of Early Christianity/Late Antiquity find it one of the most exciting periods in all history as many of the ideas and institutions important to the Western, Latin, middle ages and the Eastern, Greek, middle ages, were formed in this period.

Not surprisingly, the Classical Tradition continued throughout this period and later as well even up to today. Many of the sources mentioned in this bibliography are those used in common by Classicists and Early Christian art historians.

Two dates are especially significant in this regard:

1) The so-called Edict of Toleration (the so-called ‘Edict of Milan’ neither an ‘edict’, nor issued at Milan) of 313 did not make Christianity the state religion. Rather, Constantine and Licinius met at Milan and agreed to recognize Christianity as a religion that could be openly practiced – all religions were to be tolerated equally and Christianity was just one of them. An amazing number of print sources state that Constantine made Christianity the state religion. Paganism continued to be practiced and Emperor Julian ‘the Apostate’, the last emperor of the house of Constantine, wanted to substitute paganism for Christianity during his brief reign 361-363. It was not until Emperor Theodosius I (346/7-395), who early in his reign took only mild measures against Paganism, in 391 issued a series of harsh laws prohibiting public and private sacrifice – a severe blow to Paganism but even that was not the end of Pagan cults though it is usually considered to be the establishment date of Christianity as the state religion.

2) The earliest Christian gatherings were in houses. The oldest surviving house that clearly was modified to serve as a church was at Dura Europos on the Euphrates in present day Syria. After It was extensively remodeled at ground level, it no longer served as a residence. One room, the earliest known, was a baptistery and two other rooms were consolidated to serve as a worship space with a low dias on the east end. The house had been rebuilt in 231 after an earthquake and was modified for Christian usage ca. 241 very close to our beginning date of ca. AD 250.

In the late 3rd century, as Christianity grew, some congregations turned to non-residential buildings (warehouses and rectangular municipal halls) to solve congregational space problems. Two early 4th century buildings that were designed and constructed de novo as church buildings are: 1) Rome, Church of San Crisogono in Trastevere, and 2) Syria, Qirk Bize, in the so-called ‘dead cities’ west of Aleppo (west of Jebel ‘Ala). The fourth century is accordingly a watershed for church design and construction.

Early Christian churches and church-related structures (baptisteries and martyria) are found throughout the near east and Mediterranean basin – some known from excavations, others only so far from literary evidence. Constantine built a number of churches in Rome, the Levant (Holy Sepulcher, the Eleona on the Mount of Olives, Golden Octagon in Antioch), as well as churches in Constantinople, his new capital – some of these were basilican in plan, others were central plan buildings.

In the following bibliography, many entries have short annotations; longer annotations are provided for some entries that may not be familiar to users of the bibliography. The bibliography also cites some older, still-useful, sources.


I. Bibliographies and Research Guides

II. Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

III. Serial Bibliographies and Journal Indexes

IV. Atlases

V. Book Reviews

VI. Iconography

VII. Internet Gateways

VIII. Introductory monographs


1. Articles on antiquity in Festschriften, an index; the ancient near east, the Old Testament, Greece, Rome, Roman law, Byzantium. Dorothy Rounds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Covers 1178 festschriften on classical tradition, Rome and Byzantium through 1453. Publications with imprints through 1954.

2. Dictionary of bibliographic abbreviations found in the scholarship of classical studies and related disciplines. Jean Susorney Wellington, compiler. Rev. & expanded ed. Westport, CT, London: Praeger, 2003.

Explanation of abbreviations found in major journals, series and standard reference works in classical studies. Provides full bibliographic descriptions. Includes late antique and early Christian eras as well as later medieval and Byzantine studies. Especially useful for serial publications of regional archaeological and historical societies and museums. Part 1 has abbreviations followed by alphanumeric codes that refer users to bibliographic entries in part 2.

3. Festchriften in Art History, 1960-1975: Bibliography and Index. By Betty Woelk Lincoln. (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, volume 745) New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1988.

Extremely useful source for access to this elusive scholarly literature in Art History. All subjects (persons, places, things) relevant to the history of art, architecture and related fields, are indexed beginning with the Christian era. Includes 4,676 essays in 344 festschriften by 3099 authors. Fills the gap in coverage of festschriften between Rave (entry #7) and BHA (entry #46).

4. Index of articles on the New Testament and the early church published in Festschriften. Bruce Manning Metzger. (Journal of Biblical Literature. Monograph series, vol. 5) Philadelphia, PA: Society of Biblical Literature, 1951.

Covers New Testament and the first five centuries of the early church in about 600 festschriften from the beginning of the custom of festschriften publication through 1949/50. Note section on early church art and archaeology.

5. Index of Mediaeval studies published in festschriften, 1865-1946 with special reference to Romanic material. Harry F. Williams, compiler. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951.

Includes 498 festschriften dealing with art, history, etc. from ‘about the fifth century’ to the early 16th century. Includes only materials of direct interest to medieval scholars. Jenkins, Fred W. Classical Studies: A Guide to the Reference Literature. Englewood, CO.: Libraries Unlimited, 1996.

6. Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture: an annotated bibliography and historiography. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1992. Though now mor ethan tne years old, it is still a very important annotated biliograrphy - a beginning point to augment through other bibliographic sources.

7. Kunstgeschichte in Festschriften; allgemeine Bibliographie, kunstwissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen in den bis 1960 erschienenen Festschriften, von Paul Ortwin Rave, unter Mitarbeit von Barbara Stein. Berlin: Mann, 1962.

The earliest attempt at providing access to elusive scholarly literature in Art History through 1960. Usually festschriften are cataloged under the name of the honoree.

8. Lambrino, Scarlat, Ed. Bibliographie de l’antiquite classique, 1896-1914, Paris: Societe d’Edition “Les Belles Lettres,” 1951. Extremely useful early source, predecessor title to entry 10 (q.v.).

9. Literature on Byzantine Art, 1892-1967. Edited by Jelisaveta S. Allen. (Dumbarton Oaks Bibliographies. Series 1) London: Mansell, published for the Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. 1973-1976. 2 volumes in 3. Volume 1 (Part 1: by Location) in 2 volumes. Volume 2: Byzantine Art by categories. Extremely useful for beginning research in this era as it includes much peripheral information on art of other parts of the early Christian/late antique world that has implications on or from Byzantine art. Easy to augment by examining more recent cumulative bibliographies.

10. Marouzeau, J. Dix Annees de bibliographie classique: bibliographie critique et analytique de l’antiquite greco-latine pour le period 1914-1924. Paris: Societe d’Edition “Les Belles Lettres,” 1927-1928. 2 volumes. Continues coverage of entry 8; continued by entry #40?.


11. Allgemeines Kuenstlerlexikon. Die Bildenden Kuenstler aller Zeiten und Voelker. (AKL) Bd. 1-3 (Aa-Aaron) Leipzig: E.A. Seemann Verlag, 1983-1990. Bd. 5 (Ardos-Avogard) –Bd. 39 (Ferrari d’Orsara-Filippi) Muenchen/Leipzig: K. G. Sauer, 1992—in progress. Some artists of the early Christian period are known and hence included here.

12. Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Kuenstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Bd. 1-36. Herausgegeben von Ulrich Thieme und Felix Becker. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann Verlag, 1992. Supplemented by Vollmer: Allegemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kuenstler des XX.Jahrhunderts. Leipzig: Seeman, 1953-1962. 6 volumes.

(Reprint of the original 1907/1908 Leipzig edition) Again, includes some artists of the early Christian period.

13. Brill’s New Pauly: encyclopedia of the ancient world, Edited by Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider; English edition, managing editor, Christine F. Salazar.(ISBN:9004122591) Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2002—

Very welcome English edition of Der Neue Pauly (q.v.). Part 1: Antiquity (as of April 2004 three volumes have appeared: vol. 1. A-Ari – vol.2 Ark-Cas – vol. 3. Cat-Cyp.)

14. Catholic Encyclopedia, an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church. Edited by Charles G. Herbermann. New York: Encyclopedia Press, Inc., 1913. 15 volumes and index.

While in many cases very dated and insular, the scholarly entries are still useful as well as the extensive bibliographies following each entry.

Online at:

15. Dictionary of Art. Editor, Jane Turner. NY: Grove’s Dictionaries, 1996. 34 volumes.

Print predecessor of the online Grove Dictionary of Art. Covers all visual arts forms, prehistory to the 1990s. Detailed index volume very useful.

16. Dictionnaire critique et documentaries des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps et de tous le pays/par un groupe de’acrivains specialists francais et etrangers. Emmanuel Benezit. Nouvelle edition (4th). Paris: Gruend, 1999. 14 volumes. (ISBN: 2700030109 set)

17. Dictionnaire d’archeologie Chretienne et de liturgie. Edited by Fernand Cabrol and Henri Leclerc.. Paris: Letousey et Ane, 1907-1953. 15 volumes in 19.

18. Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. 2nd edition. Edited by Everett Ferguson, et. al. (Garland reference library of the humanities, vol. 1839) New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1997.

Covers period from the life of Jesus to ca. 600 A.D. (the latter date not observed rigidly).

Includes persons, places, doctrines, practices, art, Iiturgy, heresies, and schisms. Though it relies in large part on written texts by both Christians and Non-Christians, entries are included on Christian art, archaeology, and architecture, etc. Explains the early schism in the church that have an impact on the art of the period from both contemporary believers and non-believers. Covers concepts and post-biblical writings. Extensive bibliographies.

19. Grove Dictionary of Art ONLINE. New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, Inc. 1999.

While very useful and it does include some images, it is disappointing in that it does not seem to keep bibliographies as current as they were promised to be. Early on it seemed the more complete bibliographies were only in the print edition and brief select bibliographies in the electronic version, but both editions are the same now, just not up to date!

20. Kuenstlerlexikon der Antike. Herausgegeben von Rainer Vollmer. Redaktion Doris Vollkommer-Gloekler. Muenchen/Leipzig: K. G. Sauer, 2001-

Bd. 1 (A-K). Bd. 2 (L-Z). Bd. 2 published?

Includes 1900 names, 3rd century BC (in case of Egypt back to 3000 B.C.) to 700 A.D. for the Mediterranean region. Long bibliography for well-known architects, painters, sculptors, etc. from ancient sources to date. (includes all art media including architecture). Derived from AKL, but further along in alphabet than AKL so seems to be in some way a separate endeavor.

21. Late antiquity, a guide to the postclassical World. Edited by G. W. Bowersock, Peter Brown and Oleg Grabar. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999.

Following eleven introductory essays on late antiquity, here defined as 250-800 A.D, there is an “Alphabetical Guide” comprising roughly 2/3 of the publication. The guide has entries that help explain the uniqueness of this time period over the vast space of the Roman and Sassanian empires – including western Europe, the eastern empire, the Sassanian empire, and the early caliphate as well as more distant societies that were implicated in the overall development of the late antique period. Has a good index.

Introductory essays may have led librarians to place this in the stacks, but it should be reference or a second copy should be bought for reference. Extensive current bibliographies.

22. Lexikon der Alten Welt. Zurich: Artemis, 1965.

Covers the ancient near east as well as the classical world.

23. Neue Pauly: Enzyklopaedie der Antike Altertum. Edited by Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, 1996—

Updated version of Paulys Realenzyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft with much newly written material and easier to use. Multivolume work published in two sections. Nearly as hard to use as the older editions, but at least it is up-to-date.

24. New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. 15 volumes. Supplements: volume 16 (1974) & 17 (1979).

25. New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Editor, Ephraim Stern.

Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society & Carta; New York: Simon &

Schuster, 1993. 4 volumes.

Covers Jewish, Christian and Muslim archaeology since the ‘dawn of creativity’ to the Ottoman period. Covers traditional boundaries of the Holy Land on both sides of the Jordan River and from Sinai to Elath in the south to the sources of the Jordan River in the north. Many excavation reports published here for the first time, including new excavations, renewed excavations and excavations untouched since the last edition of 1978. While most entries are individual sites, there are some collective entries and overviews of geographical regions that include sites that do not warrant separate entries. Maps on end papers. Chronological tables, lists of kings, and glossary of terms. Separate indexes of names, places and biblical references.

26. Oxford Classical Dictionary. 3rd edition. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, editors.

New York: Oxford University, 1996.

A standard general English-language reference work on the classical world.

27. Oxford Companion to Christian art and architecture. By Peter Murray and Linda Murray. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Attempts to cover both western and eastern Christian art from the early Christian period to the present. Useful generally-trustworthy summary entries. Separate glossary of architectural terms with cross-references to main text where necessary.

28. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. 3 volumes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of Byzantine history and civilization covering the 4th to the 15th century. Entries are interdisciplinary in nature with both major survey and detailed topic articles. Bibliographies are selective and emphasize monographs. Covers all regions that at any time formed part of the Byzantine Empire as well as sites outside the empire’s borders that had significant connections with Byzantium. Extremely useful maps and genealogical tables. In general, uses the term late Roman or Late Antique for the period of the 4th to the early or mid-7th century and later.

29. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Extremely useful handbook to the Christian church intelligible to the lay person.

30. Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Prepared under the auspices of the American Schools of Oriental Research; Editor in chief, Eric M. Myers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 5 volumes. (ISBN:0195065123)

Useful due to its comprehensive inclusion of Syria-Palestine archaeology (from the eastern Mediterranean to Iran, Anatolia to the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Cyprus and parts of North and East Africa. Covers pre-history through the crusades including Islamic archaeology though coverage of individual countries varies considerably due to the nature of the excavations and interest in some time periods to the exclusion of others. Many drawings, plans and photographs as well as separate series of detailed regional maps in the fifth volume. Detailed index and synoptic outline of the conceptual scheme of the work.

31. Paulys Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Edited by August Friedrich von Pauly. Neue Bearbeit under Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgenossen herausgegeben von Georg Wissowa. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1894-1972. Reihe I, 47 volumes in 48; Reihe II, 19 volumes.

Standard reference work, though now in many cases dated, for every area of classical studies.

32. Paulys Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenscahft. Supplement. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1903-1978. 16 volumes.

33. Paulys Realenzyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Gesamtregister. Edited by Tobias Erler, et. al. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1997 – Print and computer laser optical disc.

A general index to all 83 volumes of Pauly-Wissowa including supplements, addenda and corrigenda. In two parts: an alphabetical subject index, and systematic classified subject index.

34. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Edited by Richard Stillwell, et. al., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Still very useful for sites all over the classical world.

35. Reallexikon fuer Antike und Christentum: Sachwoerterbuch zur Auseinandersetzung des Christentums mit der Antiken Welt, in Verbindung mit Franz Joseph Doelger, Hans Leitzmann und unter besonderer Mitwirkung von Jan Hendrik Wasznik und Leopold Wenger. Herausgegeben von Theodor Klauser. (ISBN:3777250066 set) Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann, 1950—

Bd. 1 (Alpha & Omega, published in 1950) – Bd. 19 (Itinerarium – Kannibalismus, published in 2000); Register, Bd. 1-15 (published in 2000). Update supplements, Lieferung 10 (Bruecke – Carmen ad quondam senatorem (published in 2003). Register Band, Keywords and Authors, Bd.1-16 (published in 1994). Published in fascicles, Lieferung 158 (latest as of 2004).

36. Reallexikon zur Byzantinischen Kunst (RBK). Herausgegeben von Klaus Wessel. Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1966 in progress. Lieferung 46 (2002): Musterbuecher – Nerezi.

Fascicules published one or two per year/ eight lieferungen per volume. Covers late antique period in the East and people, states, cities of the Christian east. Especially useful for North Africa, Levant, and Turkey.

37. Thieme-Becker/Vollmer Gesamtregister: Register zum Allgemeinen Lexikon der

bildenden Kuenstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart und zum Allgemeinen Lexikon der bildenden Kuenstler des XX Jahrhunderts. Muenchen/Leipzig: K. G. Sauer.

Teil I: Laender (Bd. 1-3 published in 1996); Teil II: Kuenstlerische Berufe (Bd. 1-3 published in 1997)

38. Woerterbuch der Alt Christlichen Kunst. Kassel: Johannes Stauda-Verlag, 1959.

Polylingual, especially useful for German translations of Latin expressions and architectural terms. “Anhang” of important Greek words translated into German.


39. L’ Annee philologique: bibliographie critique et analytique de’antiquite greco-latine. 1924---

Paris: Societe d’Edition “Les Belles Lettres,” 1928-. Annual.

Comprehensive bibliography of the literature on Greek and Roman antiquity including all regions that had cultural relations and trade with Greece and Rome. Also lists references to the survival of antiquity in later periods including the medieval period in the Greek East and Latin West. Divided into both an author and classified subject section. Earlier publications covered by entries #8 and 10 (supra).

40. Archaeologische Bibliographie. Berlin: W. de Gruyter & Co., 1932-1993. (ISSN:0341-8308)

Issued as supplement to (and often bound with): Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts.

For literature beginning with 1994 see Projekt DYABOLA.

41. Art Abstracts/Art Index Retrospective. New York: H. W. Wilson & Co.

Art Index Retrospective (1929-1984); Art Abstracts, 1984 –present.

42. Art Full Text (Online). 1984 –present.

43. Arts & Humanities Citation Index (Online). 1975—present.

44. Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals.

Comprehensive index to worldwide scholarly, popular, professional and governmental publications on architecture including archaeological sites 1930s to date. Selective indexing 1860s to 1930s. Published by the Getty Trust and Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library of Columbia University.

Avery index to architectural periodicals (Online)

45. Bibliography of the History of Art: BHA = Bibliographie d'histoire de l'art. (ISSN:1150-1588)

Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France : Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Institut de l'information scientifique et technique ; Santa Monica, Calif. : J. Paul Getty Trust, Getty Art History Information Program. Vol. 1/1 (1991)-v. 8/4 (1998)

Covers art from Early Christian/ Late Antique period to date. Indexes and Abstracts art- related books, conference proceedings, dissertations, festschriften and journal articles.

Electronic version (1973 to present) includes and extends the coverage of its two predecessor indexes: RAA (Repertoire d’art et d’archeologie) 1973-1989 and RILA (International Repertory of the Literature of Art) 1975-1989. For coverage prior to 1973 see RAA (Repertoire d’Art et d’Archeologie) 1910—1973. Updated quarterly.

46. Bulletin Signaletique 526: Art et archeologie. Proche-Orient, Asie, Amerique. 1970-1990. Paris, Centre de documentation du CNRS, 1970-1990.

Continued by Francis Bulletin Signaletique 526, Art et archeologie. The Near-East section used to be useful for new books and excavation reports. Cannot determine that it is still being published.

47. Byzantinishe Zeitschrift (Bibliographie).(ISSN:0007-7704)

Muenchen: C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1892 -- present.

Scholarly articles, signed reviews and notices. Each semi-annual issue includes “Bibliographische Notizen und Mitteilungen” section. Abteilung 7 “Kunstgeschichte” is a current classified bibliography of articles on all aspects of Byzantine Art and culture, as well as the art and culture of antiquity and the Latin west as they relate to those of Byzantium. Includes some abstracts. Includes all languages unlike most other such publications.

CDROM version available as of September 2002 covers volumes 84(1991) to 93 (2000) and the three Supplementum Bibliographicum issues. Muenchen: K.G. Saur, 2002.

48. Fasti Archaeologici, Annual Bulletin of Classical Archaeology. Formerly: Firenze, Sansoni Editore vol. 1(1946); now Firenze, Casa Editrice, vol. 38/41(1997).

Covers all media. Very late in publication. Section VI Christianity and Late Antiquity, has three parts: 1). Christian and Late Antique Civilization and Art, 2). Regions and sites – the East, 3) Regions and sites – the West. . .

49. Francis, bulletin signaletique. 526, Art et archeologie. (ISSN:1157-3767). Paris: Centre national de la recherché scientifique, Institut de l’information scientifique et technique, Sciences humaines et socials, 1991-??

Continues: Bulletin Signaletique 526: Art et archeologie. Proche-Orient, Asie, Amerique. (1970-1990).

50. Gnomon: Kritische Zeitschrift fuer die gesamte klassische Altertumswissenschaft. Muenchen: C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1925 –present.

Eight issues per year; alternative issues contain a “Bibliographische Beilage” listing recent Classical Studies books and articles for Ancient History, Classical Philology and Archaeology. Each issue also has several reviews.


51. Humanities Index Full Text, 1994 – present.

52. Humanities Index. New York, H. W. Wilson, 1975—present.

53. International Medieval Bibliography (ISSN:0020-7950)

Leeds, England: University of Leeds; Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, vol. 1(1971)-32(1998). Online and CDROM versions.

Timely bibliography for articles published in serials and miscellany volumes (conference proceedings, collected essays, festschriften and exhibition catalogues). Covers the European middle ages, covers 400-1500 A.D. Indexing by medievalists for medievalists.

Covers Europe, Middle East and North Africa. Twice a year.

54. Projekt DYABOLA (Dynamically Accumulating Database on Objects and Literature about Antiquity).

Dyabola includes a number of Deutsche Archaeologische Institut (DAI) databases. Most important for our topic are the electronic version of:

a). Archaeologische Bibliographie, the annual bibliography (books, articles, symposia, and Festschriften) of literature on classical, early Christian, Byzantine, early Medieval, and ancient near eastern art and archaeology published by the DAI in Rome, annual print publication from 1994 to date.

Available as an annual CDROM disc. When a new disc is published, the earlier year is added to the Vollstandige Realkatalog des DAI in Rom and cumulated with all earlier issues in one database so that the CDROM only covers the latest year.

b). Sachkatalog der RGK (Roman-Germanic Commission) in Frankfurt, a subject catalog covering archaeology of the Roman provinces and Medieval Europe, annual publication 1992 to date;

c). Vollstaendige Realkatalog des DAI in Rom, the complete subject catalog of the DAI, one of the most complete libraries devoted to classical studies founded in 1829 covering Classical archaeology, Egyptian archaeology, and archaeology of the near east, annual publication 1993 to date;

d). Vergangverzeichnis des DAI Madrid, new acquisitions with systematic subject headings covering all aspects of Iberian peninsula archaeology including Jewish and Islamic history, annual publication 1991 to date.

Only electronic at:

Not intuitive in the least and extremely idiosyncratic. Hard to remember how to use it users are only sporadic. Recently seems to keep changing without notification as to what is going on and where favorite useful sections are to be found. Nevertheless, it is a basic tool for Classics and for the classical tradition. Happily, online useful guides have been prepared by Barbara Polowy (Smith College), Lucie Stylianopoulos (University of Virginia), and Jean Wellington (Classics Library, University of Cincinnati) as well as Susan Willets (Institute of Classical Studies, University of London).

55. Repertoire d’art et d’archeologie. (ISSN:0080-0953)

  1. 68 (1910-1964); nouv. ser., 1 – 25 (1965-1989). Merged with: Repertoire international de la literature de l’art, to form: Bibliography of the history of art.

56. Repertoire international de la literature de l’art: RILA = international repertory of the literature of art. (ISSN:0145-5982)

1973 Demonstration issue. Vol. 1,no. 1 (1975) –vol. 15, pt. 21 (1989).

Merged with Repertoire d’art et d’archeologie to form: Bibliography of the history of art.

57. TOCS-IN: Tables of contents of journals of interest to classicists. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1999 -present.

Provides the table of contents – for searching, browsing, or downloading -- of about 185 journals interest to classics, near eastern studies, and religion journals, both in text format and through a Web search program. Project began to archive current contents of journals in 1992 in Toronto with a mirror site in Louvain that archives much additional material for some journals before 1992. TOCS-IN is an entirely volunteer project (80 volunteers from 16 countries) and does not index electronic journals.


58. Atlas of Christian sites in Egypt, by Otto Meinardus. Le Caire: Societe d’archeologie Copte, 1962. Only six leaves.

59. Atlas of classical history from 1700 B.C. to A.D. 565. 5th edition. Michael Grant, 1914- New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Has good maps of late empire to 476.

60. Atlas of the early Christian world. By Frederick van der Meer and Christine Mohrmann. Translated and edited by Mary F. Hedlund, and H. H. Rowley. London: Nelson, 1958.

Forty maps and endpapers, but has extensive period and geographical summaries along with numerous illustrations and notes covering post-Apostolic times to about 600 A.D. Detailed geographical index to maps and plates and a separate index of persons and things in the maps, plates and text. Separate section of notes to the plates. While obviously dated, it contains a wealth of knowledge on the early Christian world and is still useful for many older excavation sites as it indicates proximity to many known sites.

61. Atlas of the Greek and Roman World in Antiquity. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press, 1981.

Good maps of Roman provinces (North Africa, Egypt and eastern provinces).

62. Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte der christlichen kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Hubert Jedin, herausgeber. et. al. Freiburg in Breisgau, Germany: Verlag Herder KG, 1970.

Maps of the early Christian period especially useful.

63. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman world. Richard J. A. Talbert in collaboration with Roger S. Bagnall, et. al. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Maps for late Roman period useful.

64. Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names on Line. (TGN)

Extremely useful source for exact location of a place and all the variations on a place name. Hierarchical position of more than one million places, but not all places are included as the project is still in progress. Emphasis is on places that are important to art and architecture. Provides access to a site from variant names to the preferred name of the site, as well as the exact coordinates for the name place and the geographic hierarchy for a place. The issue of proximity of one place to another is still hard to determine, hence the inclusion of several atlases in this part of this bibliography that provide maps of early Christian/late antique place name locations. a so

65. Historical Maps on File. Revised edition. New York: Facts on File, 2002.

Extremely useful maps on ancient civilization, particularly late antique period. Inasmuch as it is a loose-leaf atlas, it is more current than most atlases listed in this bibliography, but, by reason of its attempt at comprehensiveness, there are only a few maps relevant to the early Christian period.


66. Bryn Mawr Classical Review. (ISSN:1055-7660) November 1990 – to date.

Web site:

Reviews current monographs in all areas of Classical Studies, broadly interpreted. No paper publication. Reviews are posted as soon as the editors have received and edited them. As reviews are posted, they are archived and available for viewing, searching, and printing. Indexed by reviewer and author of work. Can be browsed by year.

67. Medieval Review (formerly Bryn Mawr Medieval Review [August 1993-February 1996]. March 1996 — to date, known as TMR (The Medieval Review) Moderated distribution list of the Medieval Institute, College of Arts and Sciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Web site:

Reviews current monographs in all areas of Medieval Studies, broadly interpreted. No paper publication. Reviews are posted as soon as the editors have received and edited them. As reviews are posted they are archived and available for viewing, searching, and printing. Indexed by reviewer and author of work. Can be browsed by year.


68. Encyclopedia of comparative iconography: themes depicted in works of art. Helene Roberts, editor. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998. 2 volumes.

Covers many narratives and themes from mythology, religion and literature that animate the history of art. Orders iconographic narratives according to the actions performed by the characters, to the situations in which they find themselves, and concepts relating to these situations and actions. Several extensive indexes.

69. Iconography of Christian art. 2nd edition. Gertrud Schiller. Translated by Janet Seligman. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1971-1972. 2 volumes.

Translation of only 1st & 2nd volumes of the original German edition (birth through passion of Christ).

70. Iconographie de l’art chretienne. Louis Reau. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1955-59. 3 volumes in 6. (Reprint: Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1974)

Covers Early Christian representations to the 20th century emphasis on Western medieval. Each subject heading provides translations of terms in from two to eight languages, providing a polyglot dictionary of terms.

71. Ikonographie der Christlichen Kunst. Gertrud Schiller. Guetersloh, Germany: Guetersloher Verlagshaus G. Mohn, 1966 – 1990. 5 volumes in 8. Index for volumes 1-4.

Treats of major events in the life of Christ and the Virgin arranged chronologically.

Vols. 1-3: Christ and his life to the Transfiguration; vol. 4, part 1: the Church; part 2: Mary; vol. 5, Apocalypse of John in two parts.

72. Index of Christian Art

Specialized Iconographic resource for mostly Western art from early apostolic times to 1400 A.D. (extended in case of the Morgan and Princeton Library projects to end of the 16th century). Includes manuscripts, metalwork, sculpture, painting and glass. To be examined in detail by Colum Hourihane another presenter in this workshop.

73. Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Engelbert Kirschbaum S.J., herausgeber, in Zusammenarbeit mit Guenter Bandmann, et. al. Rom: Herder, 1968-1976. 8 volumes.

Includes early Christian and Byzantine as well as early, high and late middle ages, Renaissance and Baroque as well as Slavic art. Includes brief index by feast day, and attributes in last volume. Comprehensive and now somewhat dated but useful for our period.


74. ARCHNet

New improved and current product beta version rolled out in April 2004. Housed and maintained by staff at Archaeological Research Institute at Arizona State University. Site will be accessible in English, French, German, Spanish, Turkish and Esperanto. For topics it is supposed to include Medieval Studies, Classical Bibliography, and for regions Africa, Europe, and Near East. In the past, the site has had an anthropological emphasis, but this is supposed to change. Seems to be a student project.

75. Argos

Temporarily(?) withdrawn ancient and medieval internet site.

76. Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology (C&MA)

Collects links of interest to classicists and Mediterranean archaeologists. See particularly Europe - Antiquities, Mediterranean region - Antiquities, and Classical antiquities.

77. Internet Medieval Sourcebook http://www.fordham/edu/Halsall/sbook.html

Centered at Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. Part of the Internet History Sourcebooks project of public-domain and copy-permitted historical texts. Online resources of medieval and Byzantine sources. Note especially selected sources on the end of the classical world, Pagan late antiquity and Christian late antiquity.

78. Iter: Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

(AKA: The bibliography of Medieval and Renaissance Europe from 400-1700) Toronto: University of Toronto. Password protected.

Goal of Iter is to increase access to all published materials pertaining to the Renaissance (1300-1700) and, eventually, to the Middle Ages (400-1500) through the creation of online bibliographic databases. Headquartered in Toronto, with partners in NYC and Tempe, AZ. Has several parts, of most interest here is the Iter Bibliography.

79. Labyrinth

Very rich source for mostly western medieval, but includes American Expedition to Tell Tuneinir Syria excavations.


Very useful connection for medieval resources for both Latin West and Greek East.

Includes medieval archaeology. Note Hypertext Medieval Glossary of ca. 1500 terms.

81. ORB

Online reference books for medieval studies. Recently moved to College of Staten Island, CUNY. Internal search engine not working due to move. See sections on late antiquity and the early church, as well as Early church in late antiquity – a select introductory bibliography. Under reconstruction.

82. ROMARCH: Roman Art and Archaeology.

Covers Roman art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 100 B.C. to 700 A.D. Formerly at University of Michigan and later at the University of Cincinnati and Stanford University. Primary organizational structure is by geographic region.

83. Worlds of Late Antiquity

Covers all manner of miscellaneous materials relating to the late antique culture of the Mediterranean world (defined here as roughly 200-700 A.D.). The author, James O’Donnell, left the University of Pennsylvania in 2002 for Georgetown and while the Penn site is supposed to be live, only the Georgetown site is to be ‘consistently current & accurate.’


This short bibliography of monographs on the early Christian period, covers mostly recent publications on the topic – though some early particularly significant publications are included -- and is limited to the art and art-making milieu of roughly 250 to 500AD – a periodization agreed upon by the presenters at the workshop. Accordingly, monographs included here are those that treat only of this period. It does not include festschriften, or collections of the articles of a particular author nor books that cover both the early Christian and Byzantine period unless the book is devoted mostly to the early Christian period. Finally, it does not include monographs devoted to a particular monument. We have tried to provide regional coverage where the monuments of a geographic region are particularly important for this period.

1. Art, archaeology, and architecture of early Christianity, edited with an introduction by Paul Corby Finney. NY: Garland Publishing, 1993. (Studies in early Christianity, vol. 18)

2. Badawy, Alexander. Coptic art and archaeology: The art of the Christian Egyptians from the late antique to the middle ages. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978.

3. Bianchi Bandinelli, Ranuccio. Rome: The Late Empire, Roman Art A.D. 200-400.Translated by Peter Green. New York: G. Braziller, 1971. (Arts of Mankind, v. 17)

4. Beckwith, John, 1918-. Early Christian and Byzantine Art. 2nd (integrated) edition. New Haven: Penguin,1986. (Pelican History of Art).

5. Blessings of pilgrimage. Edited by Robert Ousterhout. Urbana: University of Illinois Pres, 1990.

(Illinois Byzantine studies, 1)

6. Bovini, Giuseppe. Edifici de culto d’eta paleocristiania nel Territorio Ravennate di Classe. Bologna: Casa Editrici, 1969.

7. Bovini, Giuseppe and Hugo and Brandenburg. Repertorium der Christlich-Antiken Sarcophage. 2 volumes in 3. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1967.

8. Bovini, Giuseppe. Storia e architettura degli edifici paleocristiani de culto di Ravenna. Bologna: R. Patron, 1964. 3 volumes.

9. Brilliant, Richard. Gesture and Rank in Roman Art: The uses of Gestures to Denote Status in Roman Sculpture and Coinage. New Haven, CT: Connecticut Academy of Arts & Sciences, 1963. (Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts & Sciences, no. 14)

10. Butler, Howard Crosby. Early Churches in Syria, fourth to seventh centuries. Edited and completed by E. Baldwin Smith. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1929. [Reprint: Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1969]

11. Crowfoot, John Winter. Early churches in Palestine. London: Published for the British Academy by H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1941. (Reprint: College Park, Maryland: McGrath Publishing Company, 1971) (Schweich lectures, 1937)

12. De Angelis d’Ossat, Guglielmo, 1907- Studi ravennati; problemi di architettura paleocristiania. Ravenna, Edizioni Dante, 1962.

13. De Paor, Maire. Early Irish art. Dublin: Department of Foreign Affairs, 1979.

14. Deichmann, Friedrich Wilhelm. Archeologia cristiana. Roma: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, 1993.

15. Deichmann, Friedrich Wilhelm. Ravenna, Haupstadt des spaetantiken Abendlandes. 3 volumes in 5. Weisbaden: F. Steiner, 1969-1989.

16. Deichmann, Friedrich Wilhelm. Temi di iconografia paleocristiana. Cura e introduzione di Fabrizio Bisconti. Cittta del Vaticano: Pontificio Istituto di archeologia cristiana, 2000, (Sussidi allo studio delle antichita cristiana, 13)

17. Du Bourget, Pierre. Art of the Copts. New York: Crown Publishers, 1971.

18. Du Bourget, Pierre. Early Christian art. New York: Reynal, 1971.

19. Effenberger, Arne. Fruehchristliche Kunst und Kultur, von den Anfaengen bis zum 7 . Jahrhundert. Muenchen: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1986.

20. Eglises de village de la Syrie du nord. Paris: Librairie orientaliste P. Geuthner, 1979-1980. 2 vol. (Bibliotheque archaeologique et historique/ Institut francais d’archeologique du Proche-Orient, t. 105)

21. Elsner, Jas. Imperial Rome and Christian triumph: the art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.

22. Fausone, Alfonso M. Die Taufe in der fruehchristlichen Sepulkralkunst: eine archaeologisch-ikonologische Studie zu den Urspruengen des Bildthemas Roma: Pontificio Istituto de Archeologia Cristiana, 1982. (Studi di antichita cristiana, 35)

23. Finney, Paul Corby. The Invisible God: the earliest Christians on art. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.

24. Fruehchristliche Kunst in Rom und Konstantinopel. Schaetze aus dem Museum fuer Spaetantike und Byzantinische Kunst Berlin. Paderborn: Erzbischoefliches Dioezesanmuseum, 1996.

25. Gerster, Georg, 1928- Churches in Rock: Early Christian Art in Ethiopia. London: Phaidon, 1970.

26. Grabar, Andre. 1896-1990.The Beginnings of Christian Art, 200-395. Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons. London: Thames and Hudson, 1967.(Arts of Mankind)

27. Grabar, Andre. 1896-1990. Christian iconography, a study of its origins. (Translated from the French by Terry Grabar) Princeton, NJ; Princeton University Press, 1968. (Bollingen Series, 35. The A.W. Mellon lectures in the fine arts, 10)

28. Gui, Isabelle. Basiliques chretiennes d’Afrique du nord; inventaire et typologie. Texte initial per Isabelle Gui; revise et complete par Noel Duvan et Jean-Pierre Caillet. Volume 1: Inventaire des monuments de l'Algerie (2 vols) Paris: Institut des etudes augustiniennes, 1992. All published? (Collection des etudes augustiniennes. Serie Antiquite, 129 -)

29. Henry, Francoise. Irish art in the early Christian period. London: Methuen, 1965.

30. Images of Inspiration, the Old Testament in early Christian art. Edited by Joan Goodick Westenholz. Jerusalem: Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem, 2000.

31. Jensen, Robin Margaret. Understanding early Christian art. NY: Routledge, 2000.

32. Jerphanion, Guillaume de, 1877-1948. La Voix des monuments, notes et etudes d’archaeologie chretienne. Paris: Les Editions van Oest, 1930. Nouvelles series. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Orientale, 1938.

33. Kemp, Wolfgang. Christliche Kunst: Ihre anfaenge/Ihre strukturen. Muenchen: Schirmer-Mosel, 1994.

34. Khatchatrian, A. Les Baptisteres paleochretiens, plans, notices, et bibliographie. Avant-propos de Andre Grabar. Paris: Klincksieck, 1962.

35. Khatchatrian, A. Origine et typologie des baptisteries paleochretiens. Mulhouse: Centre de culture chretienne, 1982,

36. Kirsch, Johann Peter, 1861-1941. Le catacombe romane. Roma: Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, 1933. (Collezione “Amici della catacombe” 1)

37. Kitzinger, Ernst, 1912-. Byzantine art in the making: main lines of stylistic development in Mediterranean Art, 3rd to 7th century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.

38. Kleiner, Diana E. E. Roman Imperial Funerary Altars with Portraits. Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1987.

39. Koch, Guntram. Early Christian art & architecture, an introduction. (Translation of the original German publication: Fruehchristliche Kunst; eine einfuhrung, Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Gmbh, 1995) London: SCM Press, 1996.

40. Krautheimer, Richard, 1897-1994 & Slobodan Curcic. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. 4th edition. New Haven: Viking Penguin, 1986. (Pelican History of Art)

41. Lange, Reinhold. Das Marienbild der fruehen Jahrhunderte. Recklinghausen: Bongers, 1969.

42. Lewis, Elizabeth Bruening. Power of sacred images, a guide to the treasures of early Christian art. Allen Texas, Christian Classics, 1997.

43. Liesenberg, Kurt. Der Einfluss der Liturgie auf die Fruhchristliche Basilika. Inaugural dissertation – Albert Ludwigs Universitaet zu Freiburg im Breisgau. Neustadt an der Haardt, Druck und Verlag der Pfaelzischen Verlangsanstalt 1928.

44. Mackie, Gillian Vallance. Early Christian chapels in the West: Decoration, function, and patronage. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

45. Maguire, Eunice Dauterman. Art and holy powers in the early Christian house. Eunice Dauterman Maguire, Henry P. Maguire, and Maggie J. Duncan-Flowers, with contributions by Anna Gonosova and Barbara Oehlschlanger-Garvey. Urbana, Illinois: Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1989. (Illinois Byzantine studies, 2)

46. Mathews, Thomas F. The Clash of Gods: a reinterpretation of early Christian art. Revised and expanded edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

47. Morey, Charles R. Early Christian Art: An Outline of Style and Iconography in Sculpture and Painting from Antiquity to the Eighth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953.

48. Muzj, Maria Giovanna. Vizione e presenzza. Iconografia e teofania nel pensiero di Andre Grabar. Milano: La Casa di Matriiona, 2000.

49. L’Orange, Hans Peter. Art Forms and Civic Life in the Late Roman Empire. Translated by Knut Berg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.

50. L’Orange, Hans Peter and Reingart Unger. Das spaetantike Herrscherbild von Diokletion bis zu den Konstantintin-Soehnen 284-361 nach Christ. With supplement by Max Wegner, Die Bildnisse der Frauen und des Julian. (Das Roemische Herrscherbild, Abteilung 3, Band 4) Berlin: Gebrueder Mann, 1984.

51. Lowrie, Walter. Art in the early church. Second edition, revised. NY: Harper Torch books,1965.

52. Ovadiah, Asher. Corpus of the Byzantine Churches of the Hold Land. Bonn: Peter Hanstein Verlag Gmbh, 1970. (Theophaneia, 22)

53. Perkins, Ann Louise, 1915- The Art of Dura Europos. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

54. Poulsen, Vagn. Les portraits romains. Volume 2, De Vespasien a la Basse-Antiquite. Translated by Ghani Merad. Copenhagen: Glyptotheque Ny Carlsberg, 1977-74. (Archaeologica 36)

55. Riegl, Alois. Late Roman Art Industry. Translated with foreword, annotations from an 1898 lecture, bibliography and glossary by Rolf Winkes. Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1985. (Archaeologica 36)

56. Ristow, Sebastian. Fruehchristliche Baptisterien. Muenster, Westfalen: Aschendorffesche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1998.

57. Sanderson, Warren. Early Christian buildings: a graphic introduction. Champlain, NY: Astrion Publishing, 1994.

58. Schreckenberg, Heinz und Kurt Schubert. Jewish Historiography and iconography in early and medieval Christianity. Assen/Maastricht, Van Gorcum, 1992. (Jewish traditions in early Christian literature, vol. 2)

59. Stanzel, Gunther. Laengsbau und Zentralbau als Grundthema der Fruehchristlichen Architektur: Ueberlegungen zur Entstehung der Kuppelbasiilka Wien: Verlag der Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1979. (Denkschriften – Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Bd. 139)

60. Strong, Eugenie Sellers. Art in Ancient Rome. Volume 2, From the Flavian Dynasty to Justinian, with chapters on Painting and the Minor Arts in the First Century A.D. London: William Heinemann, 1928.

61. Strzygowski, Josef. Orient oder Rom: Beitraege zur Geschichte der Spaetantiken und fruehchristlichen Kunst. Leipzig: J. C. Hinricshs’sche Buchandlung, 1901.

62 Studien zur fruehchristlichen Kunst/ herausgegeben von Guntram Koch. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1982— three volumes published so far; all published? (Goettinger Orientforshungen. II Reihe, Studien zur spaetantiken und fruehchristliche Kunst, Bd. 6, 8-9)

63. Tchalenko, Georges. Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord: le massif du Belus a l’epoque romaine. 3 volumes. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1953-1958. . (Bibliotheque archaeologique et historique, tome 50)

64. Temi di iconografia paleocristiana, cure e introduzione di Fabrizio Bisconti. Citta del Vaticano: Pontificio Istituto di archeologia cristiana, 2000. (Sussidi allo studio della antichita cristiana, 13)

65. Torelli, Mario. Typology and Structure of Roman Historical Reliefs. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982. (Jerome Lectures, Fourteenth Series)

66. Toynbee, Jocelyn M. C. Roman Historical Portraits. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978.

67. Tristan, Frederick. Les premieres images Chretiennes, du symbole a l’icone: I ie-V ie siecle

n.p.: Librarie Artheme Fayard, 1996.

68. Van der Meer, Frederik, 1904 -. Early Christian art. London: Faber and Faber , 1967. (Translated from the German edition [ Altchristliche Kunst; Koeln: J. P. Bachem, 1960] a revision of the original Dutch [Oudchristelijke Kunst: Zeist, W. de Haan N.V., 1959 edition)

69. Vermeule, Cornelius C. The Cult Images of Imperial Rome. (Archaeologica 71) Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1987.

70. Vermeule, Cornelius C. Roman Imperial Art in Greece and Asia Minor. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1968.

71. Volbach, Wolfgang Fritz. Early Christian Art. Photography by Max Hirmer. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1961.

72. Walker, Susan. Memorials to the Roman Dead. London: British Museum Publications, 1985.

73. Warland, Rainer. Das Brustbild Christi, Studien zur Spaetantiken und fruehbyzantinischen Bildgeschichte. Rom: Herder, 1986. (Romische Quartalschrift fuer Christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte, 41. Supplementheft).

74. Weitzmann, Kurt, 1904- The frescoes of the Dura synagogue and Christian art. Kurt Weitzmann and Herbert L. Kessler. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1990. (Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 28)

75. Weitzmann, Kurt, 1904-. Late Antique and Early Christian Book Illumination. New York: George Braziller, 1977.

76. Wessel, Klaus. Coptic Art (translated from the German by Jean Carroll and Sheila Hatton)’

New York: McGraw-Hill, [1965]

77. White, L. Michael. Social Origins of Christian architecture. Valley Forge, Pa: Trinity Press, [1996] –1997. Volume I: Building God’s house in the Roman World: architectural adaptation among pagans, Jews and Christians. Volume 1 (1990 edition) also reprinted: Baltimore: Published for the American Schools of Oriental Research by Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990Volume 2: Texts and monuments for the Christian domus ecclesiae in its environment . (Harvard Theological Studies, no. 42)

78. Wickhoff, Franz. Roman Art: Some of its Principles and their application to Early Christian Painting. Translated and edited by Eugenie Strong. London: William Heinemann; New York: Macmillan, 1900. .

79. Wood, Susan. Roman Portrait Sculpture 217-260 A.D.; The Transformation of an Artistic Tradition. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986. (Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition, no. 12)